During ages, new and innovative learning technologies are often criticized or rejected, while their full acceptance is commonly delayed. As a result, the progress of Smart Learning Environments is noticed nowadays to be delayed, while educator debate about the technology used in classroom effectiveness. Author’s objective is to explore potential factors in order to render modern communication devices such as mobile phones and tablets suitable for learning in schools, taking into consideration possible advantages or disadvantages. In the case that students use mobile devices during learning procedure, a shortage of suitable content as well as adequate integration of educational and edutainment systems employing gamification techniques within the school framework. These factors are considered to be sufficient enough to strengthen and improve learning experience and effectiveness.
 Annetta, L. A. (2010). "The “I's” have it: A framework for serious educational game design": Correction to Annetta (2010). Review of General Psychology, 14(3), 250. doi.org/10.1037/a0020505
 Barlow, P. (1996). A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace. Retrieved Mar 15, 2018, from https://goo.gl/ftLV8P
 Bennett, S., Maton, K. & Kervin, L. (2008). The “digital natives” debate: A critical review of the evidence. British journal of educational technology, 39(5), 775-786. doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x
 Billinghurst, M. (2002). Augmented Reality in Education, New Horizons for Learning. Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://goo.gl/YdoKmT
 Billinghurst, M., & Duenser, A. (2012). Augmented reality in the classroom. Computer, 45(7), 56-63.
 Chang, M., Kuo, R., & Liu, E. Z. F. (2014). Revised computer game attitude scale. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 598-607).
 Dodds, P., & Fletcher, J. D. (2004). Opportunities for new" smart" learning environments enabled by next generation Web capabilities (No. IDA-D-2952). Institute for Defense Analyses Alexandria VA.
 Debating the Use of Digital Devices in the Classroom, (2018, July). Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://goo.gl/g2S3Pb
 Driven to distraction: The Device Debate. (2018, April). Retrieved July 25, 2018, from https://goo.gl/7F1xkP
 Egnatoff, W. J. (1999). Book Review of Tapscott, D. (1998). Growing Up Digital. The Rise of the Net Generation. New York: McGraw Hill. xii+ 338. ISSN 0-07-063361-4. Web site: www.growingupdigital.com. Education and Information Technologies, 4(2), 203-205.
 Ertmer, P. A., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Sadik, O., Sendurur, E., & Sendurur, P. (2012). Teacher beliefs and technology integration practices: A critical relationship. Computers & Education, 59(2), 423-435.
 Feuerstein, R., Falik, L. H., & Feuerstein, R. S. (2013). The cognitive elements of neural plasticity. Retrieved April 15, 2018, from https://goo.gl/c3htZC, doi: 10.12744/tnpt.19.03.2013.01
 Fokides, E., & Atsikpasi, P. (2017). Tablets in education. Results from the initiative ETiE, for teaching plants to primary school students. Education and Information Technologies, 22(5), 2545-2563.
 Fullan, M., & Langworthy, M. (2013). Towards a new end: New pedagogies for deep learning. Seattle, Washington: Collaborative Impact.
 Grant, P., & Basye, D. (2014). Personalized learning: A guide for engaging students with technology. International Society for Technology in Education.
 Gros, B. (2016). The design of smart educational environments. Smart Learning Environments, 3(1), 15. doi.org/10.1186/s40561-016-0039-x
 Gwak D. (2011). The meaning and predict of Smart Learning, Smart Learning Korea Proceeding, Korean e-Learning Industry Association, 2010
 Hildreth, G., & Boynton, P. L. (1947). Learning the Three R's. 2nd ed. Saint Louis, MO: Educational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved April 15, 2018, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14928-000
 Hwang, G. J. (2014). Definition, framework and research issues of smart learning environments-a context-aware ubiquitous learning perspective. Smart Learning Environments, 1(1), 4.
 Jensen, E. (2005) Teaching with the Brain in Mind, Revised 2nd Edition by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
 Jonassen, D. H. (1994). Technology as cognitive tools: Learners as designers. ITForum Paper, 1, 67-80.
 Kaimara, P., & Deliyannis, I. (2018). Why should I play this game? The role of motivation in Smart Pedagogy. In Daniela L. (Ed.) Didactics of Smart Pedagogy. Springer.
 Keller, J. M. (2010). Five fundamental requirements for motivation and volition in technology-assisted distributed learning environments. Revista Inter Ação, 35(2), 305-322. DOI 10.5216/ia.v35i2.12668
 Leadbeater, C. (2008). What’s next? 21 ideas for 21st century learning. London, UK: The Innovations Unit. Retrieved Mar 15, 2018, from http://charlesleadbeater.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/Next2.pdf
 Li, P., Legault, J., & Litcofsky, K. A. (2014). Neuroplasticity as a function of second language learning: anatomical changes in the human brain. Cortex, 58, 301-324.
 Liu, G. Z., Wu, N. W., & Chen, Y. W. (2013). Identifying emerging trends for implementing learning technology in special education: A state-of-the-art review of selected articles published in 2008–2012. Research in developmental disabilities, 34(10), 3618-3628.
 Making Mobile Phones and Services Accessible for Persons with Disabilities. A joint report of ITU–The International Telecommunication Union and G3ict–The global initiative for inclusive ICTs (2012). Retrieved Jul 14, 2018 from https://goo.gl/QafqnE
 Merrill, M. D. (2009). Finding e3 (effective, efficient and engaging) Instruction. Educational Technology, 49(3), 15-26. Retrieved Mar 23, 2018, from https://goo.gl/qG7Cgp
 Merzenich, M. (2007). Computers go to school. Retrieved Jul 14, 2018, from https://www.onthebrain.com/2007/04/computers-go-school/
 Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers college record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
 Montrieux, H., Vanderlinde, R., Schellens, T., & De Marez, L. (2015). Teaching and learning with mobile technology: A qualitative explorative study about the introduction of tablet devices in secondary education. PloS one, 10(12), e0144008.
 National Education Association (NEA). (2012). Preparing 21st century students for a global society: An educator’s guide to the four C’s. Retrieved Mar 23, 2018, from https://goo.gl/NV8Adt
 Oblinger, D., Oblinger, J. L., & Lippincott, J. K. (2005). Educating the net generation. Boulder, Colo.: EDUCAUSE, c2005. Retrieved Mar 23, 2018, from https://goo.gl/d9tRmF
 Park, S. (2015). The Effects of Social Cue Principles on Cognitive Load, Situational Interest, Motivation, and Achievement in Pedagogical Agent Multimedia Learning. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 18(4).
 Prensky, M., & Berry, B. D. (2001). Do they really think differently? On the horizon, 9(6), 1-9.
 Pierson, M. E. (2001). Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise. Journal of research on computing in education, 33(4), 413-430.
 Prensky, M. (2005). What can you learn from a cell phone? Almost anything! Innovate: Journal of Online Education, 1(5). Retrieved Jul 23, 2018, from https://www.learntechlib.org/p/107282/
 Prensky, M. (2006). Digital Natives, Digital Immigrants: Origins of Terms. Retrieved Mar 15, 2018, from https://goo.gl/deFXmB
 Prensky, M. (2009). Mathisi vasismeni sto psifiako paichnidi. Arches dynatotites kai paradeigmata efarmogis stin ekpaidefsi kai katartisi [Digital Game-based Learning, transl. in Greek]. Athens: Metaichmio.
 Prensky, M. (2011). The reformers are leaving our schools in the 20th century. SNS Newsletter.
 Robin, B. R. (2008). Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory into practice, 47(3), 220-228.
 Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary educational psychology, 25(1), 54-67. doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
 Rončević-Zubković, B., Količ-Vehovec, S., Kalebić Maglica, B., Smojver-Ažić, S., & Pahljina-Reinić, R. (2016). Attitudes of students and parents towards ICT with regard to the experience of using the iPad in classroom. Suvremena psihologija, 19(1), 37-46.
 Saavedra, A. R., & Opfer, V. D. (2012). Teaching and Learning 21st Century Skills. A Global Cities Education Network Report. New York, Asia Society. Retrieved Mar 15, 2018, from http://asiasociety.org/files/rand-0512report.pdf
 Scott, C.L. (2015) The futures of learning 3: what kind of pedagogies for the 21st century? UNESCO education research and foresight, Paris. [ERF Working Papers Series, No. 15]. Retrieved Mar 15, 2018, from https://goo.gl/2oCBgX
 Sormunen, K., Lavonen, J., & Juuti, K. (2014). Crossing classroom boundaries in science teaching and learning through the use of smartphones. Teoksessa, H., Niemi, J., Multisilta, J., & E. Löfström (toim.). Crossing boundaries for learning–through technology and human efforts. Helsinki: University of Helsinki, CICERO Learning Network, 91–109.
 Spector, J. M. (2014). Conceptualizing the emerging field of smart learning environments. Smart learning environments, 1(1), 2. doi.org/10.1186/s40561-014-0002-7.
 Spector, J. M. (2016). The potential of smart technologies for learning and instruction. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(1), 21-32.
 Spector, J. M., & Merrill, M. D. (2008). Special issue: Effective, efficient and engaging (E3) learning in the digital age. Distance Education, 29(2), 153–164.
 Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14.
 Tal, H. M., & Gross, M. (2014). Teaching sustainability via smartphone-enhanced experiential learning in a botanical garden. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 8(1), 10-15.
 Thomas, K., & McGee, C. (2012). The Only Thing We Have to Fear is... 120 Characters. Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice To Improve Learning, 56(1), 19-33. doi:10.1007/s11528-011-0550-4
 Tomlinson, C. A., Brighton, C., Hertberg, H., Callahan, C. M., Moon, T. R.B., Brimijoin, K., Conover, L. A. & Reynolds, T. (2003). Differentiating instruction in response to student readiness, interest, and learning profile in academically diverse classrooms: A review of literature. Journal of the Education of the Gifted, 27, 119-145.
 Zaranis, N., Oikonomidis, V., & Linardakis, M. (2017). Factors Affecting Greek Kindergarten Teachers Kindergarten Teacher to Support or Oppose ICT Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Education. In Research on e-Learning and ICT in Education (pp. 203-216). Springer International Publishing.
 Zhu, Z., Sun, Y., & Riezebos, P. (2016a). Introducing the smart education framework: Core elements for successful learning in a digital world. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(1), 53-66.
 Zhu, Z. T., Yu, M. H. & Riezebos, P. (2016b). A research framework of smart education. Smart Learning Environments, 3(1), 4. doi.org/10.1186/s40561-016-0026-2
 YPPETH (2018). Chrisi Kiniton Tilefonon kai Ilektronikon Syskevon stis Scholikes Monades [Use of Mobile Phones and Electronic Devices in School Units]. Greek Legislation for banning Mobile Phones from Schools, retrieved September 15, 2018, from https://goo.gl/pGX8wf.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.