Investigation into the Application of Cissus Populnea as Drilling Fluid Additive (Viscosifier) for Water Based Mud


  •   A. D. I. Sulaiman

  •   M. B. Adamu

  •   Usman Hassan

  •   S. M. Aliyu


Progress in drilling engineering demands more sophistication from the drilling mud in order to enhance the usage of drilling fluids, hence numerous additives were introduced, and a simple fluid became a complicated mixture of liquid, solid and chemicals. Some of the challenges with the existing drilling fluid additives has to do with compatibility, degradability, safety, cost, and environmental friendliness. Studies have been carried out on the economic benefits of Cissus Populnea which includes in areas of food, medicine, shelter, and transport but much attention has been paid to its applications in the Oil and Gas industry. This study investigates the rheological properties of Cissus Populnea for application as drilling fluid additive (viscosifier) in Water Based Drilling Mud. Fresh roots, stems and leaves of cissus populnea were sourced from Bayara, Bauchi State. Some liquid exudates of cissus populnea were collected and stored for analysis while some of the samples were dried and grinded in to powdered form. Exudate of the samples were characterized by FTIR, XRD and XRF. Drilling mud was formulated with the samples cisssus populnea and bentonite at different temperatures. The rheology of the formulated drilling mud was investigated and compared with that formulated using bentonite and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC). Results from X-ray Fluorescence analysis show that the chemical composition of Cissus populnea stem and root are similar when comparing their major components (In2O3 and CaO), while that of leaf has its major components to be In2O3 and Cl. Therefore, in this research work, experiments were conducted with only stem and leaf since stem and roots have common features. From the results of FTIR spectra, the stem of cissus populnea has an OH peak wavelength of 3487.42 cm-1 while that of leave is 3340.82 cm-1. The diffractogram of the stem of cissus populnea was observed at 2q = 22.67o which is very close to that of CMC (2θ = 20.31o) while the intense peaks of leaf were observed at around 28.65o. Viscosity of cissus populnea was investigated and found to be decreasing with the increase in temperature for stem exudate. While for leaf exudate, the viscosity was rather increasing with the increase in temperature at temperatures below 35 oC and then continue to decrease with the increase in temperature. The outcome of this research has confirmed the applicability of cissus populnea for drilling fluid additives, viscosifier.

Keywords: Cissus Populnea, Drilling Fluid Additive, Water- Based Mud and CMC


V. Mahto, and V. P. Sharma. Rheological Study of a Water Based Oil Drilling Fluid. Journal of Petroleum and Science Engineering, vol. 45, no.1, pp. 123-128, 2004.

J. S. Alakali, S. V. Irtwange, and M. Mkavga. Rheological Characteristics of Food Gum (Cissus populnea). Afrcan Journal of Food Science, vol. 3(9) pp. 237 -242, 2009.

F. Owuno, J. Eke-Ejiofor, and G. Wordu. Effects of cissus populnea gum on dough rheology and quality of wheat-cassava composite bread. Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, vol. 10 (2), pp. 80-84, 2012.

A. I. Igbafe, T. K. Olamiji, and A. D. I. Sulaiman. Investigating the Rheological Properties of Cissus populnea as drilling fluid additives. International Conference on Multi-disciplinery Innovation and Technology Transfer, Uniben, 2015.

V. Pushpamalar, S.J. Langford, M. Ahmad, and Y.Y. Lim. Optimization of reaction conditions for preparing carboxymethyl cellulose from sago waste. Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 64, pp. 312-318, 2006.

A. Arinkoola, O. T. Salawudeen, O. K. K. Salam, M. O. Jimoh, G. O. Abidemi, and Z. M. Atitebi. Optimization of Water-Based Drilling Fluid Produced Using Modified Nigerian Bentonite and Natural Biopolymers: Reduced Experiment and Response Surface Methodology. Iranian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1 (Winter 2019), IAChE.

J. Hall. Designing the Perfect drilling fluid additives: Can it be done? Paper presented at SPE, Asia Pacific Health, Safety and Environment Conference and exhibition held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19–20, 2005.

J. Zheng, J. Wang, O. M. Musa, D. Farrar, B. Cockcroft, A. Robinson et al. Innovative Chemistry for Drilling Fluid Additive. International Specialty Product (ISP). A paper presented at the SPE Middle Oil and Gas Show and Conference held in Manama, Bahrain, 25th – 28th September, 2011.

J. S. Alakali, S. V. Irtwange and M. Mkavga. Rheological Characteristics of Food Gum (Cissus populnea). African Journal of Food Science, vol. 3(9). pp. 237-242, 2009.

O.A. Akeem, T. O. Salawudeen, K. S. Kazeem, M. O. Jimoh, O. G. Azeez. Potential Evaluation and Optimization of Natural Biopolymers in Water-Based Drilling Mud. Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, vol. 52 (1), pp. 1-12, 2018.

A. Hebeish and S. Sharaf. Novel Nanocomposite Hydrogel for wound dressing and other medical applications. Article in RSC Advances 2015. DOI: 10.1039/C5RA07076G.

F. K. Siregar, D. Y. Nasution, Y. Muis and D. Y. Kaban. Preparation and Characterization of Antibacterial Film Based on Carboxylmethylcellulose from Gebang leaf (Coryphautan), Polyvynil Alcohol and Citric Acid. RASAYAN J. Chemical, vol. 12, no.2, pp. 554-564.

M. O. Iwe, and C. Atta. Functional Properties of the Active Ingredients of C. populnea. Crill. Perr. pp. 29-53, 1993.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Sulaiman, A.D.I., Adamu, M.B., Hassan, U. and Aliyu, S.M. 2021. Investigation into the Application of Cissus Populnea as Drilling Fluid Additive (Viscosifier) for Water Based Mud. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 6, 7 (Nov. 2021), 33-37. DOI: