•   Ayman Ibrahim

  •   Hussin Daood

  •   Zsuzsanna Bori

  •   Lajos Helyes


Infrared technology has brought a quantum leap in the specialization of non-destructive systems for internal quality inspection of agricultural and food products. Applying near-infrared spectroscopy technique (NIRs) for tracking and estimating some antioxidants such as (Lycopene, β-carotene, Phytoene and Phytofluenxe) in tomato fruit fractions (Exocarp, Mesocarp, Endocarp and Tomato pomace) with prediction model. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) device showed the antioxidant concentrations values within tomato fractions. Where, the maximum and minimum values observed in the mesocarp and exocarp fractions. Also, tomato fractions color analysis confirmed these results. Meanwhile, mesocarp fraction within range dark red color with h°≈ 31.7°, due to increased lycopene concentration, whereas, exocarp fraction was 77.29° for h°, within yellow range. In addition to HPLC and color reference methods were consensus significantly with the different of spectral transformations by the regression of partial least square (PLS). NIR spectra and antioxidant in tomato fractions were taken to establish calibration models for tracking and estimating antioxidant in tomato fractions by using partial least squares (PLS) model. The obtained Coefficients of prediction model (R2p) were 0.95, 0.91, 0.93 and 0.94 for Lycopene, β-Carotene, Phytoene and Phytofluenxe respectively. The values of (RPD) ratio obtained from the standard deviation to the standard error of prediction and also (RER) obtained from the standard error range of prediction model were varied for different tomato fractions and antioxidant content, and found that the NIR model suitable not only for screening the different concentrations values of antioxidants for tomato fractions, but also suitable for most applications including quality assurance. 

Keywords: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, HPLC, Tomato Anatomy, Color Analysis, Antioxidant, Partial Least-Squares (PLS)


FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization Statistical, "Production crops: Tomatoes, Agricultural production database'" Available at: http://faostat.fao.org, 2015.

P.D. Fraser and P.M. Bramley, "The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids," Progress in Lipid Research, vol. 43, pp. 228-265, 2004.

E. Garcia and D.M. Barrett, "Evaluation of processing tomatoes from two consecutive growing seasons: quality attributes, peelability and yield," Journal of food processing and preservation, vol. 30, pp. 20-30, 2006.

S. Mintz-Oron, T. Mandel, L. Rogachev, L. Feldberg, O. Lotan, M. Yativ, Z. Wang, R. Jetter, I. Venger, A. Adato and A. Aharoni, "Gene expression and metabolism in tomato fruit surfaces," Plant Physiology, vol. 147, pp. 823-851, 2008.

j. Shi, and M. Le Magure, "Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing," Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1-42, 2000.

J. Qin, K. Chao and M.S. Kim, "Investigation of Raman chemical imaging for detection of lycopene changes in tomatoes during postharvest ripening," Journal of food engineering, vol. 107,pp. 277-288, 2011.

R. Arias, T.C. Lee, L. Logendra and H. Janes, "Correlation of Lycopene Measured by HPLC with the L*, a*, b* Color Readings of a Hydroponic Tomato and the Relationship of Maturity with Color and Lycopene Content," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, 1697-1702, 2000.

A. Saad, A. Ibrahim and N. El-Bialee, "Internal quality assessment of tomato fruits using image color analysis," AgricEngInt: CIGR Journal Open access at http://www.cigrjournal.org, vol. 18, no. 1, 339-352, 2016.

Radzevičius, R. Karklelienė, P. Viškelis, Č. Bobinas, R. Bobinaitė and S. Sakalauskienė, "Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum Mill.) fruit quality and physiological parameters at different ripening stages of; Lithuanian cultivars," Agronomy research, vol. 7(Special issue II), 712-718, 2009.

K.M. Selahle, D. Sivakumar, J. Jifon and P. Soundy, "Postharvest responses of red and yellow sweet peppers grown under photo-selective nets," Food Chemistry, vol. 173, 951-956, 2015.

R.M. Schweiggert, C.B Steingass, A. Heller, P. Esquivel and R. Carle, "Characterization of chromoplasts and carotenoids of red and yellow-fleshed papaya (Carica papaya L.)," Planta, vol. 234, no. 5, pp. 1031-1044, 2011.

L. Lerosen, F.w. Went and L. Zechmeister, "Relation between genes and carotenoids of the tomato," National academy of sciences of the USA, vol. 5, no. 27, pp. 236-242, 1941.

E.W. Lindstrom, "Genetics," Cited by Lerosen et al., 1941, vol. 10, pp. 305, 1925.

A.S. Bali and A. Zitnak, "Blossom colour and carotenoid content of crimson tomatoes," Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 170-172, 1972.

D. Latshaw, M.B. Knoblich and B. Anderson, "Analyses of tomato peel and seed byproducts and their use as a source of carotenoids," Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 85, pp. 1166-1170, 2005.

A.J. Stewart, S. Bozonnet, W. Mullen, G.I. Jenkins, M.E. Lean and A. Crozier, "Occurrence of flavonols in tomatoes and tomato-based products," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 48, pp. 2663-2669, 2000.

S. K. Sharma and M. Le Maguer, "Lycopene in tomatoes and tomato pulp fractions," Italian Journal of Food Science, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107-113, 1996.

George, C. Kaur, D.S. Khurdiya and H.C. Kapoor, "Antioxidants in tomato (Lycopersiumesculentum) as a function of genotype," Food Chemistry, vol. 84, pp. 45-51, 2004.

A. Benakmoum, S. Abbeddou, A. Ammouche, P. Kefalas and D. Gerasopoulos, "Valorisation of low quality edible oil with tomato peel waste," Food Chemistry, vol. 110, pp. 684-690, 2008.

R.K. Toor and G.P. Savage, "Antioxidant activity in different fractions of tomatoes," Food Research International, vol. 38, pp. 487-494, 2005.

H.M. Chandra and S. Ramalingam, "Antioxidant Potentials of Skin, Pulp, and Seed Fractions of Commercially Important Tomato Cultivars," Food Sci. Biotechnol., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 15-21, 2011.

H. Schulz, H. Quilitzsch, H. Drews and H. Krüger, "Estimation of minor components in caraway, fennel and carrots by NIRSs comparison of results from dispersive and Fourier transform instruments," Int. Agrophys., vol. 14, pp. 249-253, 2000.

Martinez-Valdivieso, R. Font, P. Gomez, T. Blanco-Diaz and M. Del RIo-Celestino, "Determining the mineral composition in Cucurbita pepo fruit using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy," J. Sci. Food Agric., vol. 94, pp. 3171-3180, 2014.

M.T. Sánchez and D. Pérez-Marín, "Nondestructive measurement of fruit quality by NIR spectroscopy," In: Vázquez, M., Ramírez, J.A. (Eds.), "Advances in Post-Harvest Treatments and Fruit Quality and Safety," Nova Science Publishers Inc., Hauppauge, NY, USA, pp. 101-163, 2011.

P. Williams and K. Norris, "Near-Infrared technology in the agricultural and food industries," American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), St. Paul, MN., 2001.

P.C. Williams and K. Norris, "Qualitative applications of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy," In: P.C. Williams, k. Norris, (Eds.), Near-Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries, American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, Mn, pp. 241-246, 1987.

X. Xiao, Y. Hou, J. Du, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, L. Dong, Q. Liang, Y. Wang, G. Bai and G. Luo, "Determination of main categories of components in corn steep liquor by near-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 60, no. 32, pp. 7830-7835, 2012.

K. Deák, T. Szigedi, Z. Pék, P. Baranowski and L. Helyes, "Carotenoid determination in tomato juice using near infrared spectroscopy," Int. Agrophys., vol. 29, pp. 275-282, 2015.

A. Clement, M. Dorais and M. Vernon, "Multivariate approach to the measurement of tomato maturity and gustatory attributes and their rapid assessment by Vis-NIR Spectroscopy," Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, pp. 1538-1544, 2008.

E.D. Rubio-Diaz, D.T. Nardo, A. Santos, D.S. Jesus, D. Francis and E.L. Rodriguez-Saona, "Profiling of nutritionally important carotenoids from genetically-diverse tomatoes by infrared spectroscopy," Food Chemistry, vol. 120, pp. 282-289, 2010.

P. Rungpichayapichet, B. Mahayothee, P. Khuwijitjaru, M. Nagle and J. Muller, "Non-destructive determination of b-carotene content in mango by near-infrared spectroscopy compared with colorimetric measurements," Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 38, pp. 32-41, 2015.

M.T. Blanco-Diaz, M. Del Rio-Celestino, D. Martinez-Valdivieso and R. Font, "Use of visible and near-infrared spectroscopy for predicting antioxidant compounds in summer squash (Cucurbitapepossppepo)," Food Chemistry, vol. 164, pp. 301–308, 2014.

M.V. Davey, W. Saeys, E. Hof, H. Ramon, R.L. Swennen and J. Keulemans, "Application of visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (Vis/NIRS) to determine carotenoid contents in banana (Musa spp.) fruit flesh," J. Agric. Food Chem., vol. 57, pp. 1742-1751, 2009.

M. Bonierbale, W. Grüneberg, W. Amoros, G. Burgos, E. Salas, E. Porras and T. ZumFelde, "Total and individual carotenoid profiles in Solanumphureja cultivated potatoes: II. Development and application of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for germplasm characterization," J. Food Compos. Anal., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 509-516, 2009.

V.A. McGlone, D. Fraser, R.B. Jordan and R. Kunnemeyer, "Internal quality assessment of mandarin fruit by vis/NIR spectroscopy," J. Near Infrared Spectrosc., vol. 11, pp. 323-332, 2003a.

F. Westad and H. Marten, "Variable selection in near infrared spectroscopy based on significance testing in partial least squares regression," J. Near Infrared Spectrosc.,vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 117-124, 2000.

T. Naes, T. Isaksson, T. Fearn and T. Davies, "A User-Friendly Guide to Multivariate Calibration and Classification," NIR Publications, Chichester, West Sussex, UK., 2004.

American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC), "Near-infrared methods-Guidelines for model development and maintenance," St. Paul, MN., 1999.

B.M. Nicola, K. Beullens, E. Bobelyn, A. Peirs, W. Saeys, K.I. Theron and J. Lammertyn, "Nondestructive measurement of fruit and vegetable quality by means of NIR spectroscopy: a review," Postharvest Biology and Technology, vol. 46, pp. 99-118, 2007.

P.C. Williams and D.C. Sobering, "How do we do it: a brief summary of the methods we use in developing near infrared calibrations," In: A.M.C. Davies, P.C. Williams, (Eds.), "Near Infrared Spectroscopy: The Future Waves," NIR Publications, Chichester, pp. 185-188, 1996.

Commission Intemationaled'Eclairage (CIE), "Recommendations on uniform colour spaces, colour difference equations, metric colour terms," Supplement no. 2 to CIE publication no. 15 (E – 1.3.1.). Bureau Central de la CIE, Paris, 1978.

R.S. Hunter and R.W. Harold, "The measurement of appearance," 2nd ed. Wiley and Sons, New York, USA., 1987.

H.G. Daood, G. Bencze, G. Palotas, Z. Pék, A. Sidikov and L. Helyes, "HPLC Analysis of Carotenoids from Tomatoes Using Cross-Linked C18 Column and MS Detection," Journal of Chromatographic Science, vol. 17, pp. 1-7, 2013.

S. Liaaen-Jensen and B.F. Lutnœes, "E/Z Isomers and Isomerization," in: Britton G.S. Liaaen-Jensen, H. Pfander (Eds.) "Carotenoids," vol. 4, pp. 15-36, 2008.

Borsarelli and A. Mercadante, "Thermal and photochemical degradation of carotenoids," In "Carotenoids: Physical, Chemical, and Biological Functions and Properties," Ed. J.T. Landrum, CRC Press, Chapter 12, pp. 229-253, 2010.

D.B. Rodriguez-Amaya, "A Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in Foods," ILSI Human Nutrition Institute, Washington DC, USA., 2001.

G. W. Snedecor and W.G. Cochran, "Statistical methods. Oxford & J.BH Publishing com," 7th. edition. pp. 224-308, 1980.

A. Berardinelli, C. Cevoli, F.A. Silaghi, A. Fabbri, L. Ragni, A. Giunchi and D. Bassi, "FT-NIR spectroscopy for the quality characterization of apricots (PrunusArmeniaca L.)," Journal of Food Science, vol. 75, pp. 462-468, 2010.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Ibrahim, A., Daood, H., Bori, Z. and Helyes, L. 2018. Using Infrared Spectroscopy for Tracking and Estimating Antioxidant in Tomato Fruit Fractions. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 3, 5 (May 2018), 21-30. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2018.3.5.736.