https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/issue/feed European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2019-08-21T18:41:25-04:00 Editor-in-Chief editor@ejers.org Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1437 Speech Recognition Using MATLAB and Cross-Correlation Technique 2019-08-21T18:41:25-04:00 Ledisi Giok Kabari ledisigiokkabari@yahoo.com Marcus B. Chigoziri chigozirimarcus@yahoo.com <p>Speech is a prominent communication method among humans, whereas the communication between human and computers were based on text user interface and graphic user interface. Speech recognition is used in almost every security project where you need to speak and tell your password to computer and is also used for automation. This paper demonstrates a model that enhances technological advancement where humans and computers interact via voice user interface. In developing the model, cross correlation was implemented in MATLAB to compare two or more signals and detect the most accurate one of the all. We are actually used cross correlation to find similarity between our recorded Signal files and the testing signal. Thus we were able to develop a model where machines can differentiate between commands and act upon them.</p> 2019-08-06T07:40:33-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Ledisi Giok Kabari, Marcus B. Chigoziri https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1424 Leakages and Scaling in Stainless Steel Heat Exchangers 2019-08-21T18:41:24-04:00 Jan Marjanowski j_marjanowski@marcor.com.pl <p>The purpose of the article is to explain causes of non-corrosive and corrosive leaks in heat exchangers (HE) during standard exploitation as well as to present prevention measures to eliminate dangerous clogging by scaling and corrosion. The heat exchangers are made of Cr-Ni austenitic steels, belonging to the group of steels resistant to corrosion, called commonly stainless steels. The author of the article has over 40 years of practical experience in the areas of water treatment, corrosion and leaks prevention, as well as heat exchangers chemical cleaning. This part of the article focuses on various cases of heat exchanger leakages, while part two is a compendium on correct selection of technologies and chemicals for removal of scales from polluted heat exchangers. One will not find in the paper neither HE producer name nor industrial chemical cleaning formulas. The present paper describes reasons of leakages, examples of stainless steel HE corrosion and general characteristic of scales within HE.</p> 2019-08-08T04:14:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Jan Marjanowski https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1461 Experimental Investigation of the influence of the Cutting Conditions on the Surface Roughness in Hole turning the SCM400 Steel 2019-08-15T13:43:50-04:00 Nguyen Hong Son nguyenhongson@haui.edu.vn Hoang Xuan Thinh doductrung@haui.edu.vn Nhu-Tung Nguyen doductrung@haui.edu.vn Do Duc Trung doductrung@haui.edu.vn <p>This paper presented the experimental results about investigation of the influence of the cutting conditions on the surface roughness when hole turning the SCM400 steel. Three cutting paramesters that have mentioned in this study included cutting speed, axial feed rate, and cutting depth. The experimental design was chosen following the orthogonal matrix and added the center experiment points. The analyzed results show that the axial feed rate has the greatest degree of impact on the surface roughness. And, the second and third factors have negligible effect on the surface roughness that are cutting speed and cutting depth, respectively. These results will guide the determination of the cutting conditions in order to machining the part surface with roughness that was ensured the setting requirement. Finally, the directions for further research were also mentioned in this paper.</p> 2019-08-15T13:43:50-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nguyen Hong Son, Hoang Xuan Thinh, Nhu-Tung Nguyen, Do Duc Trung https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1457 Implementation of a RFID Technology-Based Automatic Traceability System for Industry 4.0 2019-08-15T14:04:44-04:00 Cesar Da Costa cost036@hotmail.com Rafael G. Vastag rgvastag@gmail.com Milena M. de Campos milenamdc@hotmail.com <p>One of the main problems encountered in production processes is data acquisition on the factory floor. With the increase in production complexity, the amount of data to be collected increases. Currently, data are collected both manually and automatically. The manual collection involves documentation in a folder and storing in a separate room. However, there are other types of data that are automatically recorded into an information system. The data are registered and processed in different systems, which depend on the production stage in which the data are collected. The evolution of wireless technologies, such as wireless local area networks, sensor networks, and radiofrequency identification (RFID) systems, has favored the creation of mobile services related to the ​​computing aspect. Therefore, this paper presents a model of the implementation of an electronic identification system based on RFID technology, for application in automatic traceability of products in a didactic manufacturing cell installed in the programmable logic controller (PLC) network laboratory of the São Paulo Institute, Brazil. &nbsp;</p> 2019-08-15T14:04:44-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cesar Da Costa, Rafael G. Vastag, Milena M. de Campos https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1428 Zwanzig Theory Application for Bromide and Iodide Ions in Pure Solvents at 25°C 2019-08-15T14:41:09-04:00 Nasr H. El-Hammamy nasrelhammamy@yahoo.com Marwa A. Daghash nasrelhammamy@yahoo.com Aida I. Kawana nasrelhammamy@yahoo.com <p>The Zwanzig theory of dielectric friction has been applied to trimethylsulfonium ion, bromide and iodide ions in different solvents at 25<strong><sup>°</sup></strong>C. The radius values which obtained from the slope (hydrated radius) and that one which obtained from the intercept (hydrodynamic radius) were calculated and the reason for such difference discussed on the basis of the assumptions of Zwanzig theory.</p> 2019-08-15T14:41:09-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nasr H. El-Hammamy, Marwa A. Daghash, Aida I. Kawana https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1463 Application of Wind Energy 2019-08-15T14:54:23-04:00 Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Phan Thi Thuy Hoa phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>Wind is a renewable energy source and its use does not produce toxic substances such as fossil fuels. This is one of the most efficient forms of energy, it can become one of the main energy sources for future generations. Wind energy is one of renewable energy, which is widely used when the device is mass-produced, assembly technology is completed. Developed industrial countries have developed strategies to more actively exploit wind power in the future and gradually replace traditional energy sources such as coal, hydropower, nuclear. This paper examines wind power, applicability, general development trend in the world and assesses from an economic and environmental perspective as well as some recommendations on wind energy development in Vietnam.</p> 2019-08-15T14:54:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Phan Thi Thuy Hoa https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1464 Assessing the Sustainable Development of Vietnam's Tourism Industry 2019-08-15T15:05:59-04:00 Nguyen Hoang Phuong phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Sustainable development is one of the world's millennium goals and is also a prime target for Vietnam's development. In our country, the concept of sustainable development has been approached since the 1980s, confirmed in the socio-economic development process of the country from 1991 to 2000, by Directive 36 of the Politburo on strengthening environmental protection during the period of national industrialization and modernization. At the same time, it is also affirmed through the guidelines through the National Party Congress thirteenth, XI, and XII, to become important orientations for industries, including the tourism industry. The article presents the principles of sustainable development and sustainable tourism, which is an important basis for the next steps of Vietnam Tourism. At the same time, the authors make assessments about the current level of development of Vietnam's tourism industry in order to achieve sustainable development of the tourism industry.</span></p> 2019-08-15T15:05:59-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nguyen Hoang Phuong https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1465 Biomass Energy and the Benefits It Brings 2019-08-15T15:22:03-04:00 Do Thi Nguyet phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Phan Thi Thuy Hoa phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Pham Minh Chau phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>According to fast and strong the development of economy, social. The people increasingly needed big energy resources that serve for life. However, the main sources of energy present base on the fossil. This is energy that cannot regenerative. Therefore, there are many ideas, applications about using energy efficiently. Beside some renewable energy was created, Biomass energy is the type of energy that the people use it a long time in different kinds. In the current world, many types of biomass energy have used but the question “How to use biomass energy efficiently and reasonably” still hard question and this question need to be researched carefully.</p> 2019-08-15T15:22:03-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Do Thi Nguyet, Phan Thi Thuy Hoa, Pham Minh Chau https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1466 Development of Biomass Resource Conversion Technology in Vietnam 2019-08-15T16:01:51-04:00 Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Nguyen Thi Hoa phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Thi Thuy Hoa phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Before the situation of traditional energy reserves on ports decreased, people now focus on researching, exploiting and applying new energy sources. These energy sources are considered clean, renewable energy and they do not pollute the environment. In these energy sources, biomass (biomass) plays an important role to produce biofuel gradually replacing traditional fuels. The article summarizes the results of research and development of mining technology - effectively processing diverse and abundant biomass resources of Vietnam. Along with methodological contributions, basic studies supplement the database of biomass resources. On that basis, it contributes to saving energy, promoting biogas production, syngas from biomass gasification for generators, heat utilization or biodiesel production, environmentally friendly bio-petrol. Ensure the goal for sustainable development, against climate change when energy security issues in Vietnam are threatened.</span></p> 2019-08-15T16:01:51-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Nguyen Thi Bich Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Hoa, Thi Thuy Hoa https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1454 Impact of Socio-Demographic factors on survival of under-five children in Nigeria 2019-08-18T08:30:17-04:00 Abdulmumeen Adekunle Issa aaissa@atbu.edu.ng Waheed Babatunde Yahya wbyahya@unilorin.edu.ng Eyitayo Tejumola Jolayemi tejujola@unilorin.edu.ng <p>A number of discussions on mortality or survival patterns of under-five children in Nigeria have been presented in the literature over years, most of which were characterized by descriptive analysis, in which facts were reported by percentages, ratio and measures of association to mention a few.&nbsp; In this study, binary logistic regression model was employed to model the survival status (dead or alive) of under-five children in Nigeria as a function of some socio-demographic variables. Results from this study revealed that ten socio-demographic variables among several others were significantly associated with the survivals of under-five children in Nigeria. Specifically, the results showed that children that were born in urban area, that were exclusively breastfed, that were among the first four children in the family, whose mothers have secondary education and post-secondary education have significant increased odds, to about 27%, 580%, 20%, 22% and 102% respectively, of surviving beyond age five than their counterparts in the reference categories of the above identified risk factors (odds ratio is 1.271(p &lt; 0.0001 for urban), 6.810 (p&lt;0.0001 for breastfeeding), 1.197 (p &lt; 0.0001 for birth order), 1.225 (p = 0.001 for secondary education) and 2.023 (p &lt; 0.0001 for higher education)). Results from this work indicated that more enlightenment program is required to stem the alarming increase in under-five mortality rate in Nigeria which currently stood at 112%. Data set from Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) report for 2008 was employed in this study.</p> 2019-08-18T08:30:17-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdulmumeen Adekunle Issa, Waheed Babatunde Yahya, Eyitayo Tejumola Jolayemi https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1434 The Solutions of Second Order Nonlinear Two Point Boundary Value Problems 2019-08-18T15:52:59-04:00 Abdurkadir Edeo Gemeda edeoabdurkadir@gmail.com <p>In this paper, generalized shifted Legendre polynomial approximation on a given arbitrary interval has been designed to find an approximate solution of a given second order nonlinear two point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. Here an approach using Tau method based on Legendre operational matrix of differentiation [2] &amp; [5] has been addressed to generate the nonlinear systems of algebraic equations. The unknown Legendre coefficients of these nonlinear systems are the solutions of the system and they have been solved by continuation method. These unknown Legendre coefficients are then used to write the approximate solutions to the second order nonlinear two point boundary value problems. The validity and efficiency of the method has also been illustrated with numerical examples and graphs assisted by MATLAB.</p> 2019-08-18T15:52:58-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdurkadir Edeo Gemeda https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1444 Mapping and Assessment of Healthcare Facilities Using GIS in a Part of Ikorodu Metropolis, Lagos State 2019-08-18T16:34:33-04:00 E. Effiong ekpoeffiong@yahoo.com O. F. Iyiola felixiyiola@yahoo.com Isaac Adelakun Gbiri gbiriisaac@yahoo.com M. O. Oludiji oludiji@yahoo.com S. T. Oyebanji oyebanjitomiwa@gmail.com M. T. Ayodele gbiriisaac@yahoo.com <p>The uneven distribution of health care services in Nigeria had been validated the inequalities in the accessibility and the best of fitness care services rendered to citizens. Basic fitness care offerings continue to be a cardinal responsibility of the authorities for the survival of her citizenry. Mostly in the developing country, the accessibility to these health care centres is poorly understood and underserved by the timing populations. there is a need to apprehend the elements that affect or inhibit health care used and what contributed to the use elements in term of distance from residences to the health care amenities and the thickly populace developed round the facilities. This paper focuses on the acceptable evaluation of spatial distribution of health care facilities and proposed for new health centres in some of catchments location that deserves it primarily based on distance and population figures in Ikorodu Local Community Development Area. It was subdivided&nbsp; into Ibese, Ojubode , Local Govt, Police Post, Ebute , Ogoloto , Tos Benson, Ita Elewa, Sambo , Alagbala&nbsp; and Eyita Area with their two land mass for every the catchment area inside the learn about which covered two Ibese Area, Ojubode Area, Local Govt. Area, Police Post Area, Ebute Area, Ogoloto Area, Tos Benson Area, Ita Elewa, Sambo Area, Alagbala Area and Eyita Area covered 128.585 ha, 59.658 ha, 106.793ha, 99.631ha, 140.803ha, 109.485ha, 131.518 ha, 111.625ha, 155.051 ha, 89.698 ha and 112.907 ha. Based on buffer coverage and population used and it was revealed and proposed new healthcare centres&nbsp; for&nbsp; Ojubode, Local Govt, Ibese, part of Eyita, Sambo,Alagbala and Ogoloto areas maps were produced. The useful geodatabase was created for digital healthcare facility mapping for less difficult replace every time it’s necessary.</p> 2019-08-18T16:34:33-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 E. Effiong, O. F. Iyiola, Isaac Adelakun Gbiri, M. O. Oludiji, S. T. Oyebanji, M. T. Ayodele https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1450 Assessment of Integrated Waste Management Systems in Kandahar City, Afghanistan 2019-08-18T16:55:41-04:00 Ali Mohammad Rahmani alimr.212@gmail.com Abdul Ghani Noori ghani.1001@yahoo.com <p>Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of current MSWMS for Kandahar City and two developed integrated waste management systems (IWMSs) were carried out. In addition, field survey was performed to find out the composition of MSW in Kandahar City as this was the base line data for the LCA’s. Field survey at the MSW disposal site of Kandahar City revealed that physical composition of food waste was low (26.89%) and inert (soil, sand, brick, etc.) was high (39.72%) because of constructional activities, and street and canal cleaning. LCA of current MSWMS was carried out with inclusion of fuel energy production, transport, burning used engine oil obtained from vehicles maintenance, and MSW degradation in its system boundary. The result showed that environmental impact potential for global warming, ozone depletion, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity, photo oxidant formation and particulate matter formation were 1504.6 kg CO<sub>2 </sub>equivalent, 13 g CFC-11 equivalent, 1.11 kg SO<sub>2</sub> equivalent, 645 mg P equivalent, 28.77 kg 1,4-DB equivalent, 0.46 kg C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub> equivalent plus 2.11 kg NMVOC, and 0.55 kg PM<sub>10</sub> equivalent, respectively, per functional unit (FU). MSW degradation and transport were the processes mostly contributing to potential environmental impact. In scenario 1, recycling (RC) avoided energy and raw materials consumption for new production. It could reduce 10.6% (159.3 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent) global warming potential (GWP) compared to base scenario. In scenario 2, in spite of recycling, anaerobic digestion was included to recover energy and compost. Scenario 2 showed reduction of 32.6% (490 kg CO<sub>2</sub> equivalent) GWP compared to base scenario. Hence, scenario 2 was a better IWMS in term of environmental sustainability to be considered by decision makers in Kandahar City.</p> 2019-08-18T16:55:41-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Ali Mohammad Rahmani, Abdul Ghani Noori https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1468 Potential Application of Biofuel Fuel On the Marine Diesel Engines in Vietnam 2019-08-19T16:56:58-04:00 Minh Thai Vu phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Van Vang Le phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Huu Cuong Le phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>Energy in the transportation sector has become a hot issue all over the world because it can affect the energy security of nations. Finding a new type of energy to replace fossil energy is a top concern of many countries, including biofuels. Over the past two decades, there have been many studies on the use of biodiesel and its mix for diesel engines, the results are very positive. In Vietnam, there have also been studies on the use of biodiesel and its mixes on road transport vehicles. However, in the field of waterway transport, there has not been any specific research. Through a comprehensive synthesis of the application situation and research directions in the world, as well as the ability to produce biodiesel in Vietnam, the article wishes to create a premise to develop more research to find develop new technology solutions to apply clean fuels, especially biofuels on the domestic fleet, in line with the development trend of the world on the use of biodiesel fuel.</p> 2019-08-19T16:56:58-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Minh Thai Vu, Van Vang Le, Huu Cuong Le https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1469 The Characteristics of Carbonyl Compounds Emissions from Small Marine Diesel Engines Using Biodiesel Based Palm Oil 2019-08-19T17:01:14-04:00 Van Quy Nguyen phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Huu Cuong Le phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>The study was conducted to measure and evaluate particulate emissions and carbonyl compounds from KAMA - KDE3500T generator at medium load mode (1.5 kW load). Using commercial diesel fuel 0.05 S and biodiesel palm oil with different mixing ratios are: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50%, 75% and 100% for B0, B10, B20, B30, B50, B75 and B100. Experimental results showed that: dust emission concentration decreased from B0 to B20 and increased from B30 to B100 namely 348.65 mg / m3, 297.27 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 168.59 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 169.74 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 259.98 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 330.30 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 522.98 mg / m<sup>3</sup> respectively for B0, B10, B20, B30, B50, B75, B100.&nbsp; Carbonyl emission concentrations increased from B0 to B30 and abruptly decreased at B50 and gradually increased at B75 and B100 specific figures as follows: 67.99 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 87.35 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 99.10 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 100.96 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 65.79 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 102.32 mg / m<sup>3</sup>, 102.38 mg / m<sup>3</sup> respectively for B0, B10, B20, B30, B50, B75 and B100. High concentrations of carbonyl compounds are formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone.</p> 2019-08-19T17:01:14-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Van Quy Nguyen, Huu Cuong Le https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1470 The Study Influences the Jatropha-Diesel Mixing Ratio to the Formation of Soot Emissions in Diesel Exhaust Gases 2019-08-19T17:04:43-04:00 Van Quy Nguyen phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Huu Cuong Le phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>To cope with the depletion of fossil fuels and the threat of exhaust pollution from internal combustion engines, research finds alternative fuels. Step by step to completely replace fossil fuels that will be exhausted in the future and environmentally friendly due to internal combustion engines is an urgent and important issue. Diversify fuel sources used for internal combustion engines and environmentally friendly when using Jatropha - Diesel fuel mixture. The paper focuses on studying the ability to use biodiesel derived from Jatropha seeds with the volume ratios of 5%, 10% and 15% on experimental engines. Thereby, it will analyze and evaluate the technical features and pollution levels of engines compared to pure fuels. Experimental study assessing the effect of Jatropha - Diesel mixing ratio on the emission formation compared with emissions in Vikyno EV2600 engines.</p> 2019-08-19T17:04:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Van Quy Nguyen, Huu Cuong Le https://www.ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1471 Potential Application of Biofuel Fuel on the Marine Diesel Engines in Vietnam 2019-08-19T17:07:54-04:00 Minh Thai Vu phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Huu Cuong Le phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Energy in the transportation sector has become a hot issue all over the world because it can affect the energy security of nations. Finding a new type of energy to replace fossil energy is a top concern of many countries, including biofuels. Over the past two decades, there have been many studies on the use of biodiesel and its mix for diesel engines, the results are very positive. In Vietnam, there have also been studies on the use of biodiesel and its mixes on road transport vehicles. However, in the field of waterway transport, there has not been any specific research. Through a comprehensive synthesis of the application situation and research directions in the world, as well as the ability to produce biodiesel in Vietnam, the article wishes to create a premise to develop more research to find develop new technology solutions to apply clean fuels, especially biofuels on the domestic fleet, in line with the development trend of the world on the use of biodiesel fuel.</span></p> 2019-08-19T17:07:54-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Minh Thai Vu, Huu Cuong Le