European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Evaluation of Diethyl Ether (DEE) as a Renewable Transport Fuel in Sudan <p>This study was conducted to investigate physicochemical properties, copper corrosion test and test the diesel engine performance of diethyl ether diesel blend fuel. With aid of distillation characteristic, the blends percentage were selected as DEE5%, DEE10, DEE15 and DEE20%. Stabinger Viscometer apparatus was used to determine the Kinematic viscosities, Digital Density Analyzer was used to determine the densities. ASTM D 4737 – 03 Test Method are used to determined calculated Cetane index. Copper strip corrosion device was used to determine corrosiveness of copper from diesel and DEE diesel blends. A single cylinder, four stroke diesel engines, mounted on a moving frame was used to conduct the engine test. From the study result we found that that blends physicochemical properties improved with diethyl ether ratio increased in the blends. While Cetane Index increased with diethyl ether ratio increased. At the higher load, the best result of Break thermal efficiency found at DEE10%, where at the low load, the best mechanical efficiency found at DEE5%, DEE15% and DEE20 and at the higher load, the best mechanical efficiency found at DEE20%, on other hand at the low load, the best specific fuel consumption found at DEE15%, While at the higher load the best specific fuel consumption found at DEE10%. Due to availability of diethyl ether in Sudan, diethyl ether can be used up to 10% in diesel blend with no further changed in diesel engine design, and this can be contributed to overcome the diesel fuel crisis in Sudan, but further information and studies are needed for diethyl ether transportation and blending facilities, beside study the effect the addition of diethyl ether on diesel price.</p> Mohamed Yagoub Alkhalil Karar Hamid M. Mustafa Eltjani EL. Hago Copyright (c) 2021 Mohamed Yagoub Alkhalil Karar, Hamid M. Mustafa, Eltjani EL. Hago 2021-01-03 2021-01-03 6 1 1 6 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2255 Selection Selection of Probabilistic Model of Extreme Floods in Benue River Basin, Nigeria <p>The selection of optimum probabilistic model of extreme floods as a crucial step for flood frequency analysis has remained a formidable challenge for the scientific and engineering communities to address. Presently, there is no scientific consensus about the choice of probability distribution model that would accurately simulate flood discharges at a particular location or region. In practice, several probability distributions are evaluated, and the optimum distribution is then used to establish the design quantile - probability relationship. This paper presents the evaluation of five probability distributions models; Gumbel (EV1), 2-parameter lognormal (LN2), log Pearson type III (LP3), Pearson type III(PR3), and Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) using the method of moments (MoM) for parameter estimation and annual maximum series of four hydrological stations in Benue River Basin in Nigeria. Additionally, Q-Q plots were used to compliment the selection process. The choice of optimum probability distribution model was based on five statistical goodness – of – fit measures; modified index of agreement (Dmod), relative root mean square error (RRMSE), Nash – Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), Percent bias (PBIAS), ratio of RMSE and standard deviation of the measurement (RSR). Goodness – of – fit assessment reveals that GEV is the best – fit distribution, seconded by PR3 and thirdly, LP3. In comparison with WMO (1989) survey of countries on distribution types currently in use for frequency analysis of extremes of floods shows that GEV is standard in one country, while PR3 is a standard in 7 countries, and LP3 is standard in 7 countries. It is recommended that GEV, PR3 and LP3 should be considered in the final selection of optimum probability distribution model in Nigeria.</p> Itolima Ologhadien Copyright (c) 2021 Itolima Ologhadien 2021-01-05 2021-01-05 6 1 7 18 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2300 Enhanced Fusion Mechanisms Towards Synthesizing Superheavy Elements <p>In nature all of the heavy elements are produced by nuclear fusion reactions, mostly in supernova explosions and neutron star collisions, so, this is to date the only known and proven mechanism to produce heavy elements in usable quantities. In this work we approach a difficult challenge, namely, the possibility of fusion of heavy elements, taking as a test case the heaviest observationally stable element - ²³⁸U, showing that it is feasible, at least in principle with the help of existing technologies. The main idea behind is to show that fusion of lighter - than z=184 - nuclei is conceptually viable examining the tunnel effect assisted by an auxiliary field that will produce a Sauter like effect, and this is the pathway to explore the synthesis of elements higher than z=118. The production of theoretical untested elements like Unoctquadium-184 or close Z species could open a new chapter in the physics of super-heavy elements, and leads to a deeper understanding of nuclear decay channels and stability conditions. Nuclear fusion of heavy elements will open the breach to produce neutron rich elements, so we may obtain a deep insight into the physics of the island of stability.&nbsp;This work will review basic aspects of fusion physics related to the assisted fusion mechanism. An enhanced fusion perspective is found generalizing the work of [1] to space dependent fields and the cases of ²H, ¹⁰⁶Pd and ²³⁸U are presented for several test fields. A final section reviewing laser confinement fusion actual experiments capable of achieving the required energies is also reported.</p> Nelson Enrique Bolivar Ivaylo T. Vasilev Copyright (c) 2021 Nelson Enrique Bolivar, Ivaylo T. Vasilev 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 6 1 19 30 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2242 InPAs Alloys Use for Electrical Engineering in Hard-radiation Environment <p>Effective functioning of electronics in high- radiation environment requires developing of novel semiconductor systems with radiation-tolerant properties. In given work, in search of semiconductor materials with immunity to radiation, investigations have been focused on InP<sub>x</sub>As<sub>1-x </sub>alloys. Investigating of electrical and optical characteristics and physical processes, flowing in heavily irradiated InP<sub>x</sub>As<sub>1-x</sub>&nbsp;alloys under high fluences of high-energy electrons and fast neutrons, let us create new generation of radiation-resistant semiconductor materials for electrical engineering application in hard-radiation environment.</p> Elza Khutsishvili Nodar Kekelidze Tengiz Qamushadze Zurab Chubinashvili Nana Kobulashvili Georgy Kekelidze Copyright (c) 2021 Elza Khutsishvili, Nodar Kekelidze, Tengiz Qamushadze, Zurab Chubinashvili, Nana Kobulashvili, Georgy Kekelidze 2021-01-06 2021-01-06 6 1 31 35 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.1749 Synthesis of Antiseptic Soap from Blends of Wood Tar and Some Selected Vegetable Oils <p>Antiseptic soap is a cleansing product to which active ingredient have been added to kill bacteria or germs. Usually, the price associated with conventional antiseptic soap is prohibitive, thus the need for cheap alternative sources of antiseptic soap could not be overemphasized. Traditionally, wood tar inherits antiseptic properties from the parent tree, it therefore provides an easily accessible and affordable recipe for antiseptic soap manufacture. In this paper, we elucidate the use of wood tar extracted from selected local trees (cassia, eucalyptus, and neem) as feedstock to synthesize antibacterial soap, by blending separately with vegetable oil. Two common vegetable oils (castor and peanut oils) were used in this work. The wood tar extracted by destructive distillation of the wood was characterized using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques. The analysis indicates that wood tar from the selected trees contain antiseptic components like creosol. The optimum blend ratios of wood tar to vegetable oil suitable for saponification in terms of soap yield was also investigated. Similarly, the soap formulation from optimum blend of wood tar and vegetable oil was characterized to determine pH, foam ability, cleansing power and the microbial activity of the soap. The antimicrobial sensitivity results indicate that the soap has significant inhibitory property on <em>E. coli</em> bacteria. More also, for the selected vegetable oils considered, peanut oil blend was found to give higher yield of soap compared to castor oil blend.</p> Abdu Zubairu Abdullahi S.B. Gimba Mohammed B. Korode Copyright (c) 2021 Abdu Zubairu, Abdullahi S.B. Gimba, Mohammed B. Korode 2021-01-08 2021-01-08 6 1 36 41 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2275 Recent Advances in Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering of Carbon Dioxide for Combustion Diagnostic. (Article Review) <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The rising climatic degradation due to the emission of greenhouse gases is leading to emergence of clean combustion technology, oxy-fuel combustion to minimize the emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere in combustion. Nitrogen molecules are used as probe molecule in laser-based combustion diagnostic in nitrogen rich air combustion. However, with the introduction of oxy-fuel combustion, carbon dioxide becomes the dominant molecule and has to be considered as probe molecule in combustion diagnostic. A detailed knowledge about thermodynamic properties: temperature, pressure and species concentration are necessary in optimization of combustion and minimizing the emission into the atmosphere. The non-intrusive spectroscopic measurement techniques are the most accurate methods to determine the combustion properties. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of the recent advances made in application of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of carbon dioxide for development of models for thermometry. However, there is no sufficient empirical data of time-domain S-branch Raman linewidth dependence on temperature that has been determined for pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of carbon dioxide and its mixtures for development of models for thermometry.</span></p> Henry Misoi Josephat Tanui Patrick Wanjiru Copyright (c) 2021 Henry Misoi, Josephat Tanui, Patrick Wanjiru 2021-01-09 2021-01-09 6 1 42 47 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2301 Target Tracking Using Reinforcement Learning and Neural Networks <p>Target tracking is a process that may find applications in different domains such as video surveillance, robot navigation and human computer interaction. In this work we have considered the problem of tracking a moving object in a multi agent environment. The environment is a rectangular space bounded by walls. The first agent is the target and it moves randomly in the space. The second agent should follow the target, keeping as close as possible without crashing with it. It uses sensors to detect the position of the target. The sensor readings give the distance and the angle from the target. We use reinforcement learning to train the tracker to detect any change in the movement of the target and stay within a certain range from it. Reinforcement learning is a form of machine learning in which the agent learns by interacting with the environment. By doing so, for each action taken, the agent receives a reward from the environment, which is used to determine positive or negative behaviour. The goal of the agent is to maximise the total reward received during the interaction. This form of machine learning has applications in different areas, such as: game solving with the most known game being AlphaGO; robotics, for design of hard-to engineer behaviours; traffic light control, personalized recommendations, etc. The sensor readings may have continuous values, making a very large state space. We approximate the value function using neural networks and use different reward functions for learning the best policy.</p> Jezuina Koroveshi Ana Ktona Copyright (c) 2021 Jezuina Koroveshi, Ana Ktona 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 6 1 48 54 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2316 Strengthening Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders and Building Beams with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Sheets <p>The effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) retrofitting and concrete type on the flexural strength of prestressed concrete I-section girders used in bridges and beams in buildings is investigated. Non-linear moment-curvature relationships are predicted using an iterative algorithm for both non-retrofitted and CFRP-retrofitted prestressed concrete girder and beam cross-sections with various concrete types. Two different CFRP-retrofitting schemes are analyzed for comparing their effectiveness. It is found that although non-retrofitted beam section exhibits greater ductility, the use of CFRP retrofitting in both tension and compression regions simultaneously results in a significant increase in flexural strength. It is also found that the higher the ultimate concrete strength, the higher is the influence of CFRP-retrofitting on increasing flexural strength.</p> Herish A. Hussein Zia Razzaq Copyright (c) 2021 Herish A. Hussein, Zia Razzaq 2021-01-10 2021-01-10 6 1 55 57 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2323 Assessing the Correlation between Brick Properties and Firing Hours of Locally Produced Clay-burnt Bricks in Taraba State, Nigeria <p>The use of burnt-clay bricks is increasing in rural areas because of its availability and low cost. However, the burning of bricks locally at unknown temperatures will likely result in the production of bricks that are unfit for construction purposes. The study assesses the minimum number of days bricks require to attain the minimum stipulated standards for compressive strength and water absorption. The results obtained were compared to the NIS 87: 2000 standards to assess their conformity. From the study results, the mean compressive strength of bricks (1.576 N/mm², 2.306 N/mm², 3.634 N/mm²) at 48, 72 and 96 hours of firing fails to attain the target value of 5N/mm² as stipulated by the NIS building code. However, the mean compressive strength after 120 hours (5.386 N/mm²) attains the stipulated unit value. The water absorption rate displayed similar findings with mean values of 37.12%, 34.2%, 28.88% failing to conform with the stipulated 20% standards. However, the mean of water absorption after 120 hours (21.02%) has no significant difference and hence conforms to the stipulated value. This therefore means that bricks should be burnt far beyond the 120 hours in order to safely conform to 5N/mm² and 20% compressive strength and water absorption respectively.</p> E. J Bassah W. K. Joshua Copyright (c) 2021 E. J Bassah, W. K. Joshua 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 1 58 62 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2324 Comparative Performance of the ARIMA, ARIMAX and SES Model for Estimating Reported Cases of Diabetes Mellitus in Anambra State, Nigeria <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This study examined the performance of the ARIMA, ARIMAX and the Single Exponential Smoothing (SES) model for the estimation of diabetes cases in Anambra State with the following specific objectives: to fit the model to the data, to determine the best fit model for estimating diabetes mellitus cases and forecast for expected cases for period of five years. The secondary data used for the study is sourced from records of Anambra state Ministry of Health. The Akaike information criterion is adopted for assessing the performance of the models. The R-software is employed for the analysis of data. The results obtained showed that the data satisfied normality and stationarity requirements. The finding of the study showed that ARIMA model has least value of AIC of 1177.92, following the ARIMAX model with value of AIC=1542.25 and SEM recorded highest value of 1595.67. The findings further revealed that the ARIMA has the least values across the measures of accuracy. More so, five years predictions of the cases of diabetes mellitus were obtained using the models under study. From the results of the findings, ARIMA model proved to be best alternative for estimating reported cases of diabetes mellitus in Anambra state. Based on the findings, we recommend there is need for medical practitioners /health planners to create awareness and inform patients about the possible related risk factors of death through early diagnosis and intervention. </span></p> C. V. Obi C. N. Okoli Copyright (c) 2021 C. V. Obi, C. N. Okoli 2021-01-12 2021-01-12 6 1 63 68 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2321 Thermal Analysis of the Effects of Multifaceted Conditions on Performance of Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchanger <p>A shell-and-tube heat exchanger which was subjected to different flow configurations, viz. counter flow, and parallel flow, was investigated. Each of the flow configurations was operated under two different conditions of the shell, that is, an uninsulated shell and a shell insulated with fiber glass. The hot water inlet temperature of the tube was reduced gradually from 60 <sup>o</sup>C to 40 <sup>o</sup>C, and performance evaluation of the heat exchanger was carried out. It was found that for the uninsulated shell, the heat transfer effectiveness for hot water inlet temperature of 60, 55, 50, 45, and 40 <sup>o</sup>C are 0.243, 0.244, 0.240, 0.240, and 0.247, respectively, for the parallel flow arrangement. For the counter flow arrangement, the heat transfer effectiveness for the uninsulated shell are 2.40, 2.74, 5.00, 4.17, and 2.70%, respectively, higher than those for the parallel flow. The heat exchanger’s heat transfer effectiveness with fiber-glass-insulated shell for the parallel flow condition with tube hot water inlet temperatures of 60, 55, 50, 45, and 40 <sup>o</sup>C are 0.223, 0.226, 0.220, 0.225, and 0.227, respectively, whereas the counter flow condition has its heat transfer effectiveness increased by 1.28, 1.47, 1.82, 1.11, and 1.18%, respectively, over those of the parallel flow.</p> Taiwo O. Oni Ayotunde A. Ojo Daniel C. Uguru-Okorie David O. Akindele Copyright (c) 2021 Taiwo O. Oni 2021-01-13 2021-01-13 6 1 69 75 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2325 Effect of the Addition of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash on the Compaction Properties of a Granular Material Type Hydraulic Base <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">In the present investigation 8 soil samples were studied, with additions of 5 and 7% of addition of sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA), Portland Cement (PC) and combinations of these in different proportions. The characterization and classification of the study soil was carried out, determining the Natural Humidity, Granulometric Curve, Consistency Limits, soil classification according to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and AASHTO compaction. The results show that the use of the SCBA is viable to significantly improve the physical properties of the granular soil type Hydraulic Base, The partial substitution of SCBA for PC according to the results can be considered that it would contribute to more durable and therefore economical roads. In addition to contributing to the reduction in cement consumption, which would imply a decrease in the release of CO<sub>2</sub> into the atmosphere due to the manufacture of Portland Cement. </span></p> Laura Landa-Ruiz Sabino Márquez-Montero Griselda Santiago-Hurtado Victor Moreno-Landeros José Manuel Mendoza-Rangel Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Landa-Ruiz, Sabino Márquez-Montero, Griselda Santiago-Hurtado, Victor Moreno-Landeros, José Manuel Mendoza-Rangel, Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora 2021-01-13 2021-01-13 6 1 76 79 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2335 Determination of the Conditions for Agglomeration of Molybdenite Fines in the Presence of Kerosene Emulsion Through the Extended DVLO Theory <p>The hydrophobic agglomeration of fine particles of molybdenite in the presence of kerosene emulsion, has been studied in this paper. The results obtained in the investigation as; zeta potential of kerosene emulsion(ζ<sub>emulsion</sub>), zeta potential of the molybdenite sample (ζ<sub>MoS2</sub>), hydrophobicity of molybdenite represented by the contact angle (θ<sub>MoS2</sub>) varying the pH, were used to calculate the total potential energy &nbsp;through the extended DVLO theory. Diagram containing curves total potential energy vs. separation distance of the particles, indicate that increasing the pH, also increases the energy barrier to overcome to achieve agglomeration and viceversa, which translates to a high probability of agglomeration in the pH range 5 to 8, with greater effect as the pH is increased in the acidic region.</p> Antonio López Mendoza Alicia Elizabeth Chàvez Guajardo Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio López Mendoza 2021-01-15 2021-01-15 6 1 80 86 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2328 Investigating Design Strategies for Regenerative Development <p>The menace of environmental dilapidation has been an issue of great concern in the built environment since the wake of the industrial revolution. Buildings have been said to be instruments that cut short the natural cycles of resources in both the human and natural ecosystem due to man’s anthropocentric mind-set and activities. Various theories, framework, and models have been proposed to facilitate re-generatively sustainable developments. This paper aims at highlighting strategies that are currently practiced in regenerative development with a view of presenting ideas for the practical application of regenerative sustainability in all its facets and phases. Relevant literature that described the processes of creating a regenerative development and the aspects in which regenerative sustainability principles are implemented were reviewed. The design strategies employed in the studied cases were described as they related to the phases and then grouped into the four facets of regenerative development. The paper, therefore, gives an idea of the various integrative element and practical strategies for the implementation of regenerative design in all its phases and facets. Clarity on the subject of regenerative development is also anticipated as examples of regenerative design element implemented in the cases under study were detailed out. These strategies, when applied with attention to place patterns and potentials in all aspects of the built environment, will help in creating a truly regenerative development in any area.</p> Dorcas A. Ayeni Victory O. Omeiza Copyright (c) 2021 Dorcas A. Ayeni, Victory O. Omeiza 2021-01-16 2021-01-16 6 1 87 94 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.1987 Sudanese Oil Field Production Performance by Nodal Analysis Technique <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The study has evaluated production performance of oil well by using nodal analysis for entire production system. The goal of this study is to analysis one of the Sudanese oil field using nodal analysis and to review the field completion strategy for the respective field. The study starts by collecting the data from oil Company and takes the X Field as case study. The X field consist of 18 well and four of them were selected for theanalysis namely X NW-1, X NW-2, X NW-3 and X NW-4. Operating pressure for each well are 2409, 2455, 2550 and 2420 psia, and operating flow rate are 3925.4, 1110.4, 2255.7, and 1387.2 STB/D respectively. Wellfl modeling used for this task, which permits the production optimization of oil well using the concept of nodal analysis.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Several sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to get the production forecast. If assumed thatthe depletion in the pressure occur within 1 year, the pressure reduced to 2000 and 1000psia for each well; as can be seen, the production reduced rapidly inXNW-2 and XNW-4. However, 1000psia the production becomes zero for the four wells.</span></p> Fatima A. Elbrir Copyright (c) 2021 Fatima A. Elbrir 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 6 1 95 99 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.1715 Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) with Different Application: A Systematic Mapping <p>It is very essential to develop the design and structure of Real time operating system (RTOS) exclusively if we are using this for some special tenders. There any researches believed that (RTOS) are conventional approach to designing devices (RTOS) are used to facilitate to implement different criteria and projects such as time to constrained products, the clustering, the fire alarm system, the wireless sensors powered by renewable energy sensors powered, the stability integrated modular Avionics (IMA) and the alternative programs. In this research, several publications have investigated to perceive the performance of RTOS. These study emphases on a review of RTOS in different criteria and projects to evaluate their performance on different Oss and computing platforms. In this publication data is collected comprehensively factors. In this paper, statistics and results helped in implementation of a more engrossed technique towards the implementation and improvement of RTOS. This paper, highest RTOS are clustering and performance for all applications, white alternate programs measured as least important.</p> Sarah Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Sarah Khan 2021-01-18 2021-01-18 6 1 100 103 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2322 The Impact of Sugar Particles Size and Natural Substitutes for the Replacement of Sucrose and Fat in Chocolate Brownies: Sensory and Physicochemical Analysis <p>As fat contributes important textural properties such as lubricity and tenderness to cakes, it is plausible to focus on ways to increase the perception of these properties with the aim of creating the illusion of a higher fat. The utilisation of small sugar particles has been shown to increase the moist and soft texture of Chocolate Brownies. The present study assessed three different sugar particle sizes in their ability to create the illusion of fat content and therefore their ability to permit fat replacement (FR) in this product. The unground commercial sugar (200-5181 µm) was used as the control (UC) and two of its sieved sugar separates, Large (L<sub>924-1877 µm</sub>) and Small (S<sub>459-972 µm</sub>) were investigated. For each, fat was replaced using pureed black beans. The most accepted sample was used for sucrose replacement (SR) using inulin and <em>Rebaudioside</em> A. (<em>Reb</em> A.). Samples containing the smallest sugar fraction with 25% FR were most significantly associated overall acceptability (OA) (p&lt;0.01). The application of small sugar particles did not significantly negatively affect OA or liking of samples at a level of 75% FR compared to the other two sugar fractions. The utilisation of small sugar particles (459-972 µm) in the preparation of baked goods could aid baking &amp; industry professionals in reducing the fat content of cake-like products.</p> Aislinn M. Richardson Andrey A. Tyuftin Maurice G. O’ Sullivan Kieran N. Kilcawley Eimear Gallagher Joseph P. Kerry Copyright (c) 2021 Aislinn M. Richardson, Andrey A. Tyuftin, Maurice G. O’ Sullivan, Kieran N. Kilcawley, Eimear Gallagher, Joseph P. Kerry 2021-01-19 2021-01-19 6 1 104 113 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2294 The Choke as a Brainbox for Smart Wellhead Control <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This project uses production data to generate well-specific correlations for GLR, BSW and sand concentration which are used for predictions. A software has been developed to effect a smart control algorithm. This results in a bean up or bean down operation depending on the current flowing conditions and constraints. Excel programming environment was used to write a code that constantly takes in measured data points, models the behavior of the individual data sets with bean size and controls the choke if the parameters of interest go above a predetermined cut-off. The software was also equipped with an inverse matrix solving algorithm that enables it to determine the choke performance constants for any set of initialization data. A set of data from field X were supplied and the choke performance constants; A, B, C, D and E, were found to be 10, 0.546, 0.0, 1.89 and 1.0 respectively. In addition to that, data from subsequent production operations were entered and the software was able to control the choke size to ensure that production stays below set constraints of 500, 80 and 10 in field units for GLR, BSW and sand concentration respectively. From this, it can be concluded that the software can effectively maintain the production of unwanted well effluents below their cut-offs, thereby improving oil production and the overall Net Profit Value (NPV) of a project. </span></p> Stanley I. Okafor Azubuike H. Amadi Mobolaji A. Abegunde Copyright (c) 2021 Stanley I. Okafor, Azubuike H. Amadi, Mobolaji A. Abegunde 2021-01-23 2021-01-23 6 1 114 118 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.1.2346