European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Production of Biogas from Cattle Paunch Manure <p>Slaughter house waste contains high levels of organic matter and pollutants. These pollutants can affect the ecosystem and public health negatively, to minimize the effects of these pollutants many treatments are used, one of these is biological treatment methods.&nbsp; In this study potential of biogas production from cattle paunch manure (stomach digestion content) was investigated using a batch process laboratory scale of liters digester size. Three replicate of total solid concentration of (5%, 7%) of cattle paunch manure were mixed with (10%v/v) inoculums with control units for each concentrations at room temperature. The total amount of biogas produced&nbsp;&nbsp; after 49 days of experiments were, 12.678 L, 11.544 L, 8.154 and 5.724 L for,&nbsp; 7% ,5% TS seeded sample, 7%&nbsp; and 5% total solid control&nbsp; respectively.</p> Mona Khidir Mohammed G. A. Gasmelseed Mohammed H. Abuuznien Copyright (c) 2019 Mona Khidir Mohammed, G. A. Gasmelseed, Mohammed H. Abuuznien 2019-04-02 2019-04-02 4 4 1 3 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1140 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on the Corrosion Behaviour of Mild Steel and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in 0.5 M H2SO4 <p>The research investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles on the corrosion behaviour of Mild steel and 316 Austenitic stainless steel in 0.5M H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub> using the potentiodynamic polarization method. The nanoparticles were synthesized from the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) plant extracts using Silver Nitrate (AgNO<sub>3</sub>) and were characterized using Atomic Adsorption Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and the Ultraviolet Visible Spectroscopy Technique. The AAS results showed that the plant extract is eco-friendly as it does not contain heavy metals. The FTIR results showed the different functional groups present in the extracts obtained from the different parts of the plant to be Alcohol O-H, Nitrile C≡N, Alkyne C≡C, Alkene C=C and Benzene Ring C=C. The UV-Vis results showed the presence of phenolic compound which aided inhibition. The results from the potentiodynamic polarization showed that the nanoparticle obtained from the leaf has the highest corrosion inhibition efficiency and the corrosion inhibition efficiency increases as the concentration of inhibitors increases.</p> Oluwatoyin Adenike Olaseinde Olajesu F. Olarenwaju Silifa T. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 Oluwatoyin Adenike Olaseinde, Olajesu F. Olarenwaju, Silifa T. Mohammed 2019-04-03 2019-04-03 4 4 4 10 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1039 Thermal Recovery of Niger Delta Heavy Crude <p style="margin: 0px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">Unconventional oil reserve estimate in Nigeria which is at an average of 42 billion barrels of hydrocarbon deposits, surpasses the proven reserve of 37.2 billion barrels of conventional oil reservoirs. With these statistics, the need to evaluate the prospects of production from these unconventional reservoir systems becomes a subject of interest. In this study, a thermal approach towards the recovery of a Niger Delta heavy crude oil was conducted by the viscosity reduction mechanism via hot water injection. Fluid characterization via laboratory tests revealed that the Niger Delta retrieved heavy crude sample had a viscosity 17.80 cp,13.24oAPI and a density of 0.997.6 g/cc. This sample was subjected to a series of recovery processes with hot water temperature ranging from 75 OC to 100 OC at an interval of 5oC, using a locally constructed apparatus. It was used to simulate a reservoir bulk volume of 30 litres and 8.871 liters pore volume having fluid saturations of 20% formation brine. The heavy crude viscosities were found to be in the magnitude of 1.95cp to 0.87 cp for injected hot water of 75 OC to 100 OC after post recovery tests. Temperature losses to the rock matrix of a heavy crude reservoirs and optimum injection temperatures for a known reservoir bulk volume were also established via experimental processes. The validity of assertion that hot water injection can considerably alter flow properties of heavy oils was experimentally confirmed upon comparing with a convention al water injection process.</p> Nmegbu C. G. J. Oritom Hezekiah Braye Wami E. N. Copyright (c) 2019 Nmegbu C. G. J., Oritom Hezekiah Braye, Wami E. N. 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 4 4 11 16 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1213 Performance Evaluation of a Combined Heat and Power Plant in the Niger Delta of Nigeria <p>This research presents the performance assessment of a combined heat and power plant operating in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The main focus is to evaluate the performance parameters of the gas turbine unit and the waste heat recovery generator section of the combined-heat-and-power plant. Data were gathered from the manufacturer’s manual, field and panel operator’s log sheets and the human machine interface (HMI) monitoring screen. The standard thermodynamic equations were used to determine the appropriate parameters of the various components of the gas turbine power plant as well as that of the heat exchangers of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). The outcome of all analysis indicated that for every 10C rise in ambient temperature of the compressor air intake there is an average of 0.146MW drop in the gas turbine power output, a fall of about 0.176% in the thermal efficiency of the plant, a decrease of about 2.46% in the combined-cycle thermal efficiency and an increase of about 0.0323 Kg/Kwh in specific fuel consumption of the plant. In evaluating the performance of the Waste Heat Boiler (WHB), the principle of heat balance above pinch was applied to a single steam pressure HRSG exhaust gas/steam temperature profile versus exhaust heat flow. Hence, the evaporative capacity (steam flow) of the HRSG was computed from the total heat transfer in the super-heaters and evaporator tubes using heat balance above pinch. The analysis revealed that the equivalent evaporation, evaporative capacity (steam flow) and the HRSG thermal efficiency depends on the heat exchanger’s heat load and its effective maintenance.</p> Barikuura Gbonee Barinyima Nkoi John Sodiki Copyright (c) 2019 Barikuura Gbonee, Barinyima Nkoi, John Sodiki 2019-04-06 2019-04-06 4 4 17 23 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1055 Sand Mould Design for Casting an Aluminium Pot-A Basic Procedure of Supplementing Artisanal Practices <p>Artisanal green sand casting of aluminum pots is a notable flourishing business in many urban areas of west and central Africa but seen to be typified by labor-intensive and subjective control of a large number of variables to successfully cast. Correct mold designs with in-flow and cooling rates of molten aluminum are fundamental in reducing labor and defects in the castings. The paper presents sand mold design for casting 30litre-capacity cylindrical aluminum pot of internal diameter 314.7mm, depth 386mm, and wall thickness 4mm with&nbsp; handling lugs alongside its cover using unpressurized gating system ratio of 1:3:3. The design provides suitable specifications of the ladle position, mass and pouring time and in-flow rate of molten aluminum, layout for the mold components, means of compensating process cooling shrinkages of aluminum during solidification, patterns for the castings, and molding box. The motive behind the paper was to emphasize and exemplify the use of basic engineering design procedure for supplementing artisanal green sand molding practices for improving consistency and productivity, and minimizing laboriousness and casing defects with improved profitability in the business.</p> Thomas Ndyar Guma Lilian Ogboi Uche Copyright (c) 2019 Thomas Ndyar Guma, Lilian Ogboi Uche 2019-04-06 2019-04-06 4 4 24 30 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1188 Economic Analysis of Natural Gas Reserves Addition from Coal Bed Methane in Nigeria <p>The aim of this project is to economically analyze Coal Bed Methane (CBM) development in Nigeria. This will offer an opportunity to use gas from the Nation huge coal reserves for domestic and exportation purposes to boost the economy of Nigeria. CBM can be used to generate power as well as manufacture alternative products. The profitability of coal bed methane (CBM) project depends on factors such as seam thickness, gas content, methane content, coal rank and permeability. Its economics are influenced by other variables, such as fiscal policy, depth of coal seam, volume of water disposal, access to market and price of gas. Potential and existing sites for coal bed methane extraction in Nigeria were identified. Kim’s equation was used to estimate the gas content. The gas-in-place was derived with Volumetric method. Methane quantification was estimated using Eddy curve. It is observed that the ultimate reserves, the capital costs, and the gas price have significant effect on the net present value (NPV) and internal rate of returns (IRR) and thus the economic viability of the project.&nbsp; Economic analysis of LNG and Pipeline projects for gas transmission were comparatively examined. It is observed that the gas price and demand at the market hub depend largely on the mode of transmission.</p> Ibim Abba Green Kelechi Uchenna Ugoji B. Ndukam Igbere Copyright (c) 2019 Ibim Abba Green, Kelechi Uchenna Ugoji, B. Ndukam Igbere 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 4 4 31 34 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1080 Effective Maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plant to Improve Productivity <p>This research work identified strategies to effectively maintain the gas turbine power plant as to improve on productivity. The main aim is to determine the effect of a good maintenance culture on the reliability of gas turbine power plant operation, to evaluate the loss of revenue due to high rate of intervention (or failure) in the power plant. Materials were collected from the manufacturers manual, maintenance report log sheet, production report log book/sheets, intervention schedule programmes, mechanical vibration analyzer machines, machine lubrication schedule/plan, Instrumentation calibration manuals and plants simulation model log books/sheets, human machine interface system (HMI) as well as the equipment control and monitoring machine (ECM), self administered questionnaire and internet system. The collated data were analyzed with the aid of number of intervention, mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to repair (MTTR), production yield, loss of revenue equations as well as responses from returned questionnaires to determine the effect of adequate maintenance of the power plant on productivity. The analysis revealed a negative growth rate in productivity resulting from poor performance of the gas turbine power plant in the year (2013-2017) due to poor maintenance culture. There has been colossal loss of revenue due to incessant shutdown of power plant which also affects the process plants. From the result of five years average yield of Notore historical products cost per day for two major products namely; ammonia and urea amounted to N0.1104B. In other words, for one production year, revenue of N36.4 Billion would have been received but due to high plant down-time for maintenance intervention, the company lost about N0.851Billion in a year. This is a huge loss to Notore Chemical Industries Plc.</p> Daniel Ibani Humphrey Nkoi Barinyima Isaac Okwu E. Copyright (c) 2019 Daniel Ibani Humphrey, Nkoi Barinyima, Isaac Okwu E. 2019-04-08 2019-04-08 4 4 35 42 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1109 A Hybrid Deep Learning Based Visual System for In-Vehicle Safety <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">In the automotive industry, researchers, AI experts, and developers are actively pushing deep learning based approaches for In-vehicle safety. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In this research paper, we propose a hybrid deep learning based visual system for providing feedback to the driver in a non-intrusive manner. We describe a hybrid SSD-RBM (Single Shot MultiBox Detector - Restricted Boltzmann Machine) &nbsp;model for face feature identification. In this system, object detection, object tracking, and observations are processed through a full pipeline of image processing and detect the driver's movements and generate a safe and efficient action plan in real time. This in-vehicle interactive system assist</span><span style="font-weight: 400;">s</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> drivers in regulating driving performance and avoiding hazards.</span></p> Rajkumar Joghee Bhojan D. Ramyachitra Subramanian Ganesan Ragavi Rajkumar Copyright (c) 2019 Rajkumar Joghee Bhojan, D. Ramyachitra, Subramanian Ganesan, Ragavi Rajkumar 2019-04-09 2019-04-09 4 4 43 47 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1185 The Characteristic of Control Algorithms for an Induction Electromotor by the Parameters Change in Stator Winding Voltage <p>In this paper we study various control algorithms of electromagnetic torque and rotor rotation speed by parameters change in stator voltage for an induction electromotor.</p> Frederic Biya Motto Roger Tchuidjan Benoît Ndzana Colince Tatsa Tchinda Copyright (c) 2019 Frederic Biya Motto, Roger Tchuidjan, Benoît Ndzana, Colince Tatsa Tchinda 2019-04-10 2019-04-10 4 4 48 51 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1226 Kalman Algorithm Based Electrical Impedance Tomography Imaging <p>Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that displays changes in conductivity within a body. This method finds application in biomedical and geology. EIT finds use in medical applications, as the different tissues of the body have different conductivity and dielectric constants. In this paper a phantom model is designed considering Finite Element Model (FEM). AC current of amplitude 1 mA and frequency 1 KHz is applied considering adjacent protocol with noise less and noisy cases. From the computed voltage data image is reconstructed using Kalman algorithm. For noisy case noise levels equal to Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) 30 dB, 15 dB and 7 dB were considered. Kalman algorithm is studied for EIT image reconstruction in noise free and noisy case, in terms of shape, size, spatial location of the target object.</p> Md Rabiul Islam Copyright (c) 2019 Md Rabiul Islam 2019-04-10 2019-04-10 4 4 52 55 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1227 The Impact of Soil Texture on Path Loss Modelling of an FM Signal Using Diffraction Technique <p>A novel solution to predict path loss of an FM signal using diffraction technique is proposed. Diffraction technique and soil texture impact are used to improve the Friis free-space model to predict the received signal strength and propagation path loss of an FM signal between a transmitter site and receiver site, while studying the impact of soil texture to the FM signal in the case of surface wave propagation. Measurement of signal strengths with an interval of 5KM along two different routes (1 and 2) were taken with a Digital Field Strength Meter (DW-400), in some selected open/rural environments of Kogi State. A solid-state transmitter (BE 20S), with broadcast frequency of 101.5MHz at antenna height of 120m was considered as the transmitting point source. Bluetooth signal strength meter software was used to visualize this impact of soil texture, where different types of soil were considered within the coverage area of the FM radio station, with the application of a Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) technology. Measurements taken along the two different routes were compared against predictions made by the modified model of Friis Free Space. The model showed quite large mean path loss prediction errors, and places with poor signal strength for Prime FM Radio Nigeria were revealed. The result shows that an FM signal induces current in the ground over which it passes and it is attenuated as a result of absorption of energy by the soil, depending on the soil type.</p> Evans Chinemezu Ashigwuike Ale Felix Farouq Eneuma Shaibu Copyright (c) 2019 Evans Chinemezu Ashigwuike, Ale Felix, Farouq Eneuma Shaibu 2019-04-11 2019-04-11 4 4 56 63 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1231 Influence of Heat Treatment on Corrosion of Low Carbon Steel in Sulfuric Acid Solutions <p>Different heat treatments such as (Annealing, Normalizing, Hardening in oil, and Hardening in water) of low carbon steel (LCS) specimens were performed in electrical furnace at constant temperature of (850ºC). The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of each heat treatment of LCS specimens on their corrosion rate (<em>CR</em>) in sulfuric acid solutions at constant room temperature of (25±5ºC). The <em>CR</em> was measured, while the acid concentration (<em>C<sub>acid</sub></em>) and immersion time (<em>T</em>) were changed according to experimental plan. Computer program (Statgraphics/Experimental Design) was used to calculate the fitted linear model of corrosion rate of low carbon steel in terms of (<em>C<sub>acid</sub></em>, and <em>T</em>) for each heat treatment separately. The fitted linear models of <em>CR</em> were adequate, while the interactions of the operating parameters were negligible. The R- square statistic indicates that the models as fitted explain 81-93% of the variability in corrosion rate.</p> Jafar Ghani Majeed Yasir K. Ibrahim Ghada A. Abd Al-Aziz Copyright (c) 2019 Jafar Ghani Majeed, Yasir K. Ibrahim, Ghada A. Abd Al-Aziz 2019-04-16 2019-04-16 4 4 64 69 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1137 Performance of 20 Watts Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Module under Yola Climate, North-East Nigeria <p>The performance of a 20 Watts polycrystalline silicon solar module was evaluated under Yola climatic condition. It was found that the values of short circuit current (I<sub>sc</sub>), open circuit voltage (V<sub>oc</sub>), maximum current (I<sub>max</sub>) and maximum voltage (V<sub>max</sub>) of the solar module were slightly different from those labeled under Standard Test Condition (STC).This was due to lower solar irradiance under Yola climate compared to that at STC, which resulted to changes in power and efficiency of the module. The power rating of the module at STC was 20 Watts but it was found to be 12.49 Watts between 12:00 noon and 12.15 pm when the solar irradiance was 780 Wm<sup>-2</sup>. In addition, the efficiency of the module, which was 15 % at STC, was found to be 12 % at maximum irradiance of 780 Wm<sup>-2</sup>. The Fill-factor (FF) of the solar module on the other hand was 0.71 at STC but it was found to be 0.77 at solar irradiance of 780 Wm<sup>-2</sup>.</p> Ndenah Markus Linah Osita C. Meludu Joseph Aidan Moses Elisha Kundwal Copyright (c) 2019 Ndenah Markus Linah, Osita C. Meludu, Joseph Aidan, Moses Elisha Kundwal 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 4 4 70 73 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1248 Performance Assessment of A Two-Stage Reciprocating Air Compressor <p>This research work presents the performance assessment of a two-stage reciprocating air compressor operating at an Oil and Gas Terminal in Rivers State, Nigeria. The main focus is to investigate the effects of control parameters, the problem of clogging on the performance of the compressor and consequently solve the said problem of clogging by minimizing it. Data were obtained from the manufacturers manual, field reports and the field operators log sheets. Relevant thermodynamic equations were used to determine and analyse appropriate control parameters of the compressor. Data were also analysed using various appropriate compressor equations and a thermodynamic analysis of the compressor was done to evaluate its performance. The outcome of all the analysis showed that the compressor experienced approximately 26% loss or reduction in the volumetric efficiency, about 8% loss in the isothermal efficiency, 11.1% loss in volume flow rate and about 21% decrease or reduction in the mass flow rate due to clogging when compared with the design specifications. The analysis revealed that a continuous rise in temperature caused by clogging reduced the discharge pressure, mass and volume flow rates, isothermal and volumetric efficiencies; thereby reducing its performance in comparison with the design specifications. The results further revealed that clogging is a major factor that affects the performance effectiveness of a reciprocating compressor. It was thus recommended that further research works should be carried out to accurately detect the exact presence of clogging and the accurate quantity of clog in reciprocating compressors without opening the compressor during maintenance.</p> Ikpobari Amuele Nwakpang Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa Barinyima Nkoi Copyright (c) 2019 Ikpobari Amuele Nwakpang, Barinaadaa Thaddeus Lebele-Alawa, Barinyima Nkoi 2019-04-18 2019-04-18 4 4 74 82 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.4.1130