European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Science Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 2736-576X <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Comparative Study of Oil Recovery Factor Determination for Edge and Bottom Water Drive Mechanism Using Water Influx Models <p class="Abstract">The purpose of this research work is to comparatively study the oil recovery factor from two major aquifer geometry (Bottom and Edge water aquifer) using water aquifer model owing to the fact that most if not every reservoir is bounded by a water aquifer with relative size content (Most Large). These aquifers are pivotal in oil recovery factor (percent%), Cumulative oil produced (MMSTB) as well as overall reservoir performance the methodology utilized in this study involves; Identification of appropriate influx models were utilized for aquifer characterization. The characterizes of the Niger Delta reservoir aquifer considered include aquifer permeability, aquifer porosity etc. Estimation of aquifer properties is achieved by using regressed method in Material Balance Software (MBAL). This approach involves History Matching of average reservoir pressure with computed pressure of the reservoir utilizing production data and PVT data. The computed pressure from model is history matched by regressing most uncertain parameters in aquifer such as aquifer size, permeability, and porosity. Historic production data was imputed into the MBAL Tank Model, the production data was matched with the model simulation by regressing on rock and fluid parameters with high uncertainty. The match parameters were recorded as the base parameter and other sensitivity on aquifer parameters using the Fetkovich model for the bottom and edge water drive. The average percentage increase in oil cumulative volume was 0.40% in fovour of bottom water drive. Further sensitivity on cumulative oil recovered showed the increase in reservoir size with increasing aquifer volumes increases oil production exponentially in bottom water drive whereas edge water drive increased linearly. Aquifer volume, aquifer permeability showed linear relationship with bottom and edge water drive.</p> C. G. J. Nmegbu Orisa F. Ebube Emmanuel Aniedi Edet Copyright (c) 2021 C. G. J. Nmegbu, Orisa F. Ebube, Emmanuel Aniedi Edet 2021-07-02 2021-07-02 6 5 1 9 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2493 Dynamic Modelling of a Solar Energy System with Vehicle to Home Option for Newfoundland Conditions <p class="Abstract">This paper discusses the dynamic modelling of a solar energy system with vehicle to home (V2H) option for Newfoundland condition. A location was chosen (13 Polina Road) in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada. Using BEopt, Homer and MATLAB software, an optimized system was designed for the chosen site to satisfy the house’s energy demand. Furthermore, the concept of V2H is also implemented with aid of smart current sensors installed in the house. When the power provided by the PV panel and the stored energy in the inhouse battery is less than the load’s energy demand, the Nissan Leaf’s battery used to supply home loads in V2H operation mode. The system operates based on the information generated by the sensors. Detailed system dynamic modelling is also presented along with the simulation results. Eight system control modes are proposed and simulated.</p> Raghul Suraj Sundararajan M. Tariq Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Raghul Suraj Sundararajan, M. Tariq Iqbal 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 6 5 16 23 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2497 A Review of Recent Deep Learning Models in COVID-19 Diagnosis <p>COVID-19 has emerged as the latest worrisome pandemic, which is reported to have its outbreak in Wuhan, China. The infection spreads by means of human contact, as a result, it has caused massive infections across 200 countries around the world. Artificial intelligence has likewise contributed to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in various aspects within a short span of time. Deep Neural Networks that are explored in this paper have contributed to the detection of COVID-19 from imaging sources. The datasets, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification and test results which can be useful for discovering future directions in the domain of automatic diagnosis of the disease, utilizing artificial intelligence-based frameworks, have been investigated in this paper.</p> Ela Bhattacharya D. Bhattacharya Copyright (c) 2021 Ela Bhattacharya, D. Bhattacharya 2021-07-05 2021-07-05 6 5 10 15 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2485 Simultaneous Planning of Production, Setup and Maintenance for an Unreliable Multiple Products Manufacturing System <p>The work presented in this paper addresses the problem of joint optimization of the production, setup and corrective maintenance activities of a manufacturing system. This system consists of a machine subject to breakdowns and repairs and producing two types of parts. A corrective maintenance strategy whose repair rate depends on the number of setup operations already performed on the production system is considered in this work. The objective of this research is to propose a policy that controls production, setup, and corrective maintenance. The contribution of this paper is through the control of the repair rate, combined with the planning of production and setup in a dynamic and stochastic context. Optimality conditions in the form of Hamilton-Jacoby-Bellman (HJB) equations are obtained and a numerical approach is proposed in order to deal with the joint optimization issues. Extensive simulations are performed to address many scenarios that illustrate the interactions between production, setup and maintenance activities.</p> Guy Richard Kibouka Jean Brice Mandatsy Moungomo Adoum Traoré Ndama Copyright (c) 2021 Guy Richard Kibouka, Jean Brice Mandatsy Moungomo, Adoum Traoré Ndama 2021-07-06 2021-07-06 6 5 24 34 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2495 Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration Coupled to Hot Air Drying for the Production of Tomato Powder and Reconstituted Concentrates <p>The brine temperature (X<sub>1</sub>), the NaCl concentration (X<sub>2</sub>), the drying temperature (X<sub>3</sub>), and the drying time (X<sub>4</sub>) were the 4 parameters explored in this study, which aimed to model the OD-Drying coupling of fresh tomato. A 4 factors Box-Behnken experimental design associated to the response surface methodology (RSM). A transformation of the usual quadratic model was necessary to fit the experimental results. From the obtained models, relationships between the studied factors and the followed responses were establish. From the multicriteria optimization, the following conditions were found as optimal: X<sub>1</sub> = 65 ℃, X<sub>2</sub> = 5%, X<sub>3</sub> = 43.88 ℃ and X<sub>4</sub> = 24h. The tomato powder obtained by reproduction of optimal conditions showed better properties than the tomato powder produced by local farmer by sun drying, but similar characteristics as the concentrate prepared from it. From the fresh tomato to the tomato powder obtain using the optimal conditions, the overall quality lost is relatively low.</p> C. T. Maka O. R. Isma-ila J. F. Ekorong Akouan Anta C. Kapseu Copyright (c) 2021 C. T. Maka, O. R. Isma-ila, J. F. Ekorong Akouan Anta, C. Kapseu 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 6 5 35 42 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2501 Comparison of Four MANOVA Test Statistic for Pig Production in Delta State, Nigeria <p class="Abstract">This study used the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) test statistic to examine the impact of three categories feed used in the production of pig in Delta State. The multivariate test statistic considered are the Pillai – Bartlett trace, Wilks’ Test Statistic, Roy’s Largest Root Test Statistic, and the Lawley- Hotelling (LH) Statistic. The objectives include to: evaluate the robustness of the four Multivariate Analysis of Variance test statistics to ensure that the best is employed in multivariate analysis to guarantee most useful result in pig production; determine the relatively efficient test statistic for pig production; and determine the test statistic that is consistent across the sample sizes. Secondary source of data collection was used to obtain the data required for the analysis. The outcome of the study showed that the obtained data was multivariate normally distributed based on the result of the asymmetry-based multivariate normality test and the multivariate normality test based on the kurtosis test which makes the data suitable parametric multivariate method such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results show that the Wilks and Roy tests found a significant difference for the intercept. While the Pillai and LH tests could not find any significance. The Roy test was also found to be significant for feed one, feed two, and feed three. The Wilks and Roy tests also turned out to be significant differences for the intercept. All test measures showed significance for feed one. The Wilks and Roy tests also showed a significant difference for feed two, while all test measures found a significance for feed one. Another result showed that none of the tests found significance for the interaction between feed one and two, while the Roy test found significance for the interaction between feed one and three, feed two and three and feed one, two and three. The performance of the test for evaluating the performance of feeds for pig production with/without considering interactions was found to be in the following order of magnitude: Roy, Wilks and Pilla = LH. This result implies that the Roy method, with or without consideration of the interaction, has a better performance of the test than the other methods considered in the study.</p> J. M. Aniesedo C. N. Okoli Copyright (c) 2021 J. M. Aniesedo, C. N. Okoli 2021-07-07 2021-07-07 6 5 43 49 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2502 Optimal Frequency Control Management of Grid Integration PV/Wind/FC/Storage Battery Based Smart Grid Using Multi Objective Particle Swarm Optimization MOPSO and Model Predictive Control (MPC) <p>This article forecasts the performance of smart-grid electrical transmission systems and integrated battery/FC/Wind/PV storage system renewable power sources in the context of unpredictable solar and wind power supplies. The research provided a hybrid renewable energy sources smart grid power system electrical frequency control solution using adaptive control techniques and model predictive control (MPC) based on the Multi-Objective Practical Swarm Optimization Algorithm MOPSO. To solve the problems of parameter tuning in Load Frequency Control, the suggested adaptive control approach is utilized to accomplish on-line adjustment of the Load Frequency Control parameters. During the electrical grid's integration, the system under investigation is a hybrid Wind/PV/FC/Battery smart grid with variable demand load. To achieve optimal outcomes, all of the controller settings for various units in power grids are determined by means of a customized objective function and a particle swarm optimization method rather than a regular objective function with fluctuating restrictions. To suppress the consumption and generation balance, MPCs were designed for each of the Storage Battery, Wind Turbine Generation, and the model Photovoltaic Generation. In addition, demand response (real-time pricing) was used in this scheme to reduce the load frequency by adjusting the controlled loads. The suggested control strategy is evaluated in the Simulink /MATLAB environment in order to analyse the suggested approach's working in the power system, as well as its effectiveness, reliability, robustness, and stability. The simulation findings show that the proposed control method generally converges to an optimal operating point that minimises total user disutility, restores normal frequency and planned tie-line power flows, and maintains transmission line thermal restrictions. The simulation results further indicate that the convergence holds even when the control algorithm uses inaccurate system parameters. Finally, numerical simulations are used to illustrate the proposed algorithm's robustness, optimality, and effectiveness. In compared to previous methodologies, the system frequency recovers effectively and efficiently in the event of a power demand disturbance, as demonstrated. A sensitivity test is also performed to assess the suggested technique's effectiveness.</p> Adel Elgammal Tagore Ramlal Copyright (c) 2021 Adel Elgammal 2021-07-12 2021-07-12 6 5 50 56 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2507 Analysis of 5 Floors Brick Masonry Building Type 77/5 <p>The study below presents the main results of numerical analyzes, performed to assess the seismic response of an existing building, with brick masonry, type 77/5. This building is part of the group of 4-5 residential buildings, built in the years 1975-1990, considered as a “TYPE”, each of which was used many times for identical buildings.</p> <p>This project is the result of a collective work of the Design Institute, approved by the Ministry of Construction of that time, and of course, manifests the time limitations and shortcomings.</p> <p>While these 5-story buildings cover a significant percentage of residential buildings, the fundamental question is: “<em>Are these buildings safe under seismic action, while so many families are accommodated on them?”</em></p> <p>This question stems from the following limitation:</p> <p>- The 77/5 plan derives from regular forms, based on the recommendations of Eurocode 8 [], p.48, and KTP.N.2-89 (Technical Design Conditions), published by the Academy of Sciences of Albania.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm; text-align: justify; text-indent: 10.2pt;">- The technical literature provides recommendations and restrictions for masonry buildings with a height of not more than 3 floors. When they exceed this height, they are not included in these recommendations.</p> Petraq Koka Nikolla Vesho Fabion Shehu Copyright (c) 2021 Petraq Koka, Nikolla Vesho, Fabion Shehu 2021-07-22 2021-07-22 6 5 57 62 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2517 Development and Application of Probabilistic Performance Index for Ranking N-1 Contingencies <p>Contingency analysis and ranking are important tasks in modern electrical power systems which aim at keeping the power system secure, reliable, and stable. N-1 contingency is the loss of any one component of power system and is obviously the most frequent contingency in power system. Contingency ranking has most often been done using deterministic indices which can be either active power performance index (PI<sub>P</sub>), voltage performance index (PI<sub>V</sub>) or the overall performance index (PI). Power system contingencies are ranked based on the calculated Performance index for each contingency. Ranking is from the contingency with the highest performance index first and proceeds in a descending manner which corresponds to the most severe to the least severe contingency. Due to the fact that Contingencies are unpredictable events, researchers of recent have suggested the inclusion of the probability of the occurrence of a contingency in its ranking index. This makes the index probabilistic. In this work, the development and application of probabilistic performance index for ranking N-1 contingencies is considered. It is illustrated with a case study.</p> Saidu Y. Musa Monday A. Madaki Jinkai Haruna Copyright (c) 2021 Saidu Y. Musa, Monday A. Madaki, Jinkai Haruna 2021-07-22 2021-07-22 6 5 63 69 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2518 Potential Energy Production from Biogas Economically and Environmental Profitable. Case Study: Establishing a Batch Digester in “Fogi” Farm <p>Recently the use of biomass for biogas production is very limited in Albania. According to data acquistion from the study, the highest share in the entire structure of urban solid waste is that of organic waste 41-61.2%.</p> <p>A large part of these waste are bio digestible and can used for production or utilized as potential substrate in anaerobic digestion to produce biogas, a renewable source of energy and environment friendly too.</p> <p>Live stocks waste and especially cow manure farms are concerned in this study because there are a high number 11813 of them are spread all over Albania. In addition, the amount of cow manure exceeds 37,693.92 ton/year.</p> <p>In this case study is presented a cow farm located near Tirana, capital city of Albania with 200 cow heads which in the future will become 700 cow heads. The total amount of cow manure produced in this farm is 1825 ton/year, a considerable quantity of manure available for biogas production.</p> <p>This paper presents the type of digester, calculation of the biogas production yield, the optained energy, the pay back period of the initial investment and the net present value of this farm batcher digestor.</p> Holta Prifti Tania Floqi Mirel Mico Copyright (c) 2021 Holta Prifti, Tania Floqi, Mirel Mico 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 6 5 70 72 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2503 The Neutrino Decay of the Free Neutron and the Neutrino Structure According to the Planck Vacuum Theory <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Planck vacuum (PV) theory derives equations for the neutrino and antineutrino, and relates them to the unstable free neutron and antineutron. Remarkably, these neu- trons and neutrinos share the same wavefunction solutions that describe the proton and electron and their antiparticle cores.</p> <p>The neutrino and antineutrino are chargeless and massless; so their propagation through matter goes unnoticed, making these neutrinos invisible. The equations to follow that describe these pseudo-particles are the theoretical embodiment of the circa 1930 Pauli neutrino hypothesis.</p> <p>Finally, depending on one’s perspective, the neutrons can be viewed as decaying meta-particles or as stable nuclear particles.</p> </div> </div> </div> William C. Daywitt Copyright (c) 2021 William C. Daywitt 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 6 5 73 75 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2524 Utilization of Renewable Energy: A Study on the Utilization of Solar Energy for Power Plants at the Campus of Universitas Samudra, Indonesia <p>The availability of solar energy is higher than global energy consumption, affordable by many users, simple to use, and relatively more environmentally friendly. Complexes of higher education institutions in Indonesia, in general, consist of many buildings with large roofs and stretches of unused land, which are suitable for solar power installations. This study analyzes the feasibility of constructing a solar power plant at an educational institution facility, with a specific case study on the Universitas Samudra campus. The analysis results have shown that for the supply of electricity with a total power of 10 MW, PV panels are superior to parabolic collectors. The cost of producing electricity using PV panels is 6.60 ¢/kWh, while the parabolic collector costs 26.42 ¢/kWh. And the total area required for the installation of PV.</p> Hamdani Umar Munira Amudy T. Azuar Rizal Copyright (c) 2021 Hamdani Umar, Munira Amudy, T. Azuar Rizal 2021-07-28 2021-07-28 6 5 76 79 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2525 Development of a Multi-criteria Decision Model for Nigerian Refinery Bottlenecks <p class="Abstract">Production systems are continually surrounded by bottleneck problems that limit their overall performances. The petroleum industry today faces a lot of challenges which border on production bottlenecks that tend to limit production throughput and hence output. The purpose of this study is to provide a decision support strategy for refinery operators and mangers as well as other stakeholders. The multi-criteria models used were the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Test of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). A 9-point saaty scale and 10-point linguistic scale questionnaires were used to elicit responses from experts in the refinery. The statistical computations with the Multi-criteria Decision Model were carried out with the aid of (AHP -OS) BPMSG software on nine criteria which are bottleneck variables which impact on refinery operations and the comparison was made by nine decision makers who are refinery experts while TOPSIS was used for alternatives selection. The result of the AHP showed the contributing weights of individual criterion with “Government Interference” ranking first, exerting a weight of 19.84%. The result also generated a normalized total matrix which is approximately one (1), consistency index of 0.09694 and a consistency ratio of 0.06685 which is within acceptable limit and finally from TOPSIS modeling, “Denationalization” with the highest value of 0.7598 was found to be closest to the ideal solution for the optimal refinery performance. This study has developed a multi-criteria decision model for selecting the best alternative for optimal performance based on inputs from experts and this provides a veritable framework that serves as a decision support strategy for policy makers and stakeholders in the operations of the refinery.</p> T. B. Adeleke R. O. Edokpia M. K. Onifade N. B. Chime Copyright (c) 2021 T. B. Adeleke, R. O. Edokpia, M. K. Onifade, N. B. Chime 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 6 5 80 83 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2492 Effective Project Management and the Role of Quality Assurance throughout the Project Life Cycle <p class="Abstract">Quality is a fundamental requirement in effective project management. Effective project management entails a steady focus on quality management as well as achievement of all user requirements as defined during the requirements engineering phase of project implementation. Quality assurance must be executed throughout the project development cycle as a new normal in reducing errors and challenges during project development. Conducting quality assurance throughout the project development cycle has many benefits to both the project as well as the project development team. Understanding the research approach to use is critical in achieving high-quality findings in projects. There is a need to understand how to utilize deductive, inductive, and abductive research reasoning when conducting project implementation.</p> Hengameh Fakhravar Monier Madison Ouabira Copyright (c) 2021 Hengameh Fakhravar, Monier Madison Ouabira 2021-07-29 2021-07-29 6 5 84 88 10.24018/ejers.2021.6.5.2345