European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; 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color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> (Editor-in-Chief) (Support) Sat, 04 Sep 2021 04:51:16 -0400 OJS 60 Evaluation of the Effect of Deposition pH on the Physico-chemical Properties of Electrochemically Deposited Cadmium Telluride for Photovoltaic Device Applications <p class="Abstract">Two-electrode (2E) configuration was successfully utilised in the electrochemical deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate with the main emphasis on the electrolytic bath pH. The electrochemical deposition pH explored is within the range of (1.00 to 6.00)±0.02 for the aqueous electrolyte comprising of tellurium oxide (TeO2) and cadmium nitrate (Cd(NO3)2) which are the respective precursors of Te and Cd. The optical, structural, morphological, compositional, and electrical properties of the electroplated CdTe thin-films were respectively explored using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and photoelectrochemical (PEC) cell measurements. The optical characterisation show that the CdTe samples exhibit dissimilar absorbance depending on the growth pH for both the as-deposited layers and post-growth treated CdTe layers. A decrease in the absorption edge slope and dip in the bandgap was observed away from pH2. The bandgap of the post-growth treated CdTe layers showed enhancement as it leans towards 1.45 eV, with the trend retention of absorption edge slope, similar to the as-deposited CdTe layers. The electrodeposited CdTe thin-films show a dominant orientation along the cubic (111) CdTe plane, while both the the calculated crystallite size and the XRD peak intensity Pi decreases with the electroplating pH outside the (2.00 to 3.00)±0.02 range. The EDX analyses depicts an alteration in the ratio of Cd to Te atomic percentage relative to the pH of the electrolyte. Comparatively high Te atomic ratio was observed at lower pH values and vice versa with increase alkalinity of the electrolyte. The obtained morphology depicts that the underlying FTO layers are well covered with a gradual reduction in the grain size of the CdTe observable away from pH value (2.00 and 3.00). The photoelectrochemical cell study depicts that the conduction type of the CdTe layers can also be attributed to the CdTe-electrolytic bath pH value.</p> Ayotunde A. Ojo, Kolade A. Olanipekun, Benjamin S. Oluwadare, Taiwo O. Oni Copyright (c) 2021 Ayotunde A. Ojo, Kolade A. Olanipekun, Benjamin S. Oluwadare, Taiwo O. Oni Mon, 06 Sep 2021 15:04:58 -0400 Оn the Analysis of Certain Flotation Processes with Velocities Depending on Time and Height of the Column <p>— The present paper is an extension of the previous paper of the author where the flotation column dynamics has been investigated. Here we consider the case when particle sedimentation rate and bubble lifting speed depend on time and position in the column. We use the methods for examining the transmission lines set out in the papers mentioned in the References. We formulate a mixed problem for the system describing the processes in the column and present it in a suitable operator form. Then we prove an existence - uniqueness of generalized solution by the fixed point method. We show an explicit approximated solution as a step in the sequence of successive approximations.</p> Daniela D. Parashkevova Copyright (c) 2021 Daniela D. Parashkevova Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Preliminary Study on the Reductive Leaching of Manganese Ores using FeSO₄/Iron Powder as Reducing Agents under Room Temperature <p class="Abstract">The leaching of manganese (Mn) ore in sulphuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) under reductive conditions has been studied. The effects of leaching parameters such as ore/reductant mass ratio, acid concentration, ore particle size, solid/liquid ratio, leaching time and different reductant potential on the maximum recovery of manganese have been investigated. The optimal leaching conditions were ore/reductant mass ratio of 1:3.4, acid concentration of 10% v/v H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>, ore particle size of 63-200 µm, particle size of iron powder of –150 µm, solid/liquid ratio of 1:20, and leaching time of 1.5 hours at room temperature. A comparative analysis on the recovery of manganese ore was also investigated under the optimal leaching conditions for two different reductants, iron sulphate (FeSO<sub>4</sub>) and iron powder. The maximum manganese recoveries at the optimal leaching conditions in the presence of FeSO<sub>4</sub> and iron powder are 80.6% and 95%, respectively. The results indicate that manganese can readily be leached during short time at room temperature. Furthermore, iron powder has a stronger reducing power compared to FeSO<sub>4</sub> with respect to manganese ore recovery.</p> Kofi Moro, Frank Haubrich, Mirko Martin Copyright (c) 2021 Kofi Moro, Frank Haubrich, Mirko Martin Wed, 15 Sep 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Application of Correlation and Regression Models in Predicting the Physico-chemical Quality of Groundwater from Insitu Measured Parameters <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 10.2pt;">Groundwater is the major source of municipal and private potable water supply for meeting the drinking, domestic, agricultural and industrial requirements on man around the world. The cost of analyzing water quality in the laboratory to ascertain its potability is usually high and sometimes not available. Groundwater samples were collected from fifty (50) spatially referenced bore well locations in Warri and its environs in the dry and wet seasons (November 2019 to January 2020) in the study area. The water samples were analyzed for twenty-six (26) physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters both in the field and laboratory in line with APHA standard procedures for testing water and waste water inorder to evaluate the status of potability of groundwater across Warri, Delta State Nigeria. The data analysis tool in Microsoft Excel was used to explore and study the interrelationship between some conservative parameters measured in the field (pH, EC, TDS, and DO) as independent variables and some cations, anions and heavy metals (Na, Mg, Ca, HCO3, SO4 Cl, Fe, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) analysed in the laboratory as dependent variables. The results obtained from the parameters analysed insitu in the field which are cheap to perform and easily affordable were used to check and evaluate and the inter-relationships with some cations, anions and heavy metals. Highly correlated water quality parameters were determined by correlation coefficient (R) values obtained from correlation matrix and related by Regression equations (models). The regression models can be adopted to predict the concentration of these cations, anions and heavy metals before the rigorous laboratory analysis, to serve as a quick check for concentration of most disease-causing pollutants and to save time, money and resources, especially the near absence of AAS for analysing heavy metals in a good number of laboratories. The regression models developed in the study can be used for monitoring the water quality parameters by knowing the concentration of independent parameters obtained in the field alone. There is a relationship between variables which show that one variable actually causes changes in another variable. It was observed that multiple regression models can predict most parameters at 5% level of significance. Significantly positive correlation at 1 and 5% was found between many parameters. This technique studied and calculated the correlation coefficients between various physico-chemical parameters of drinking water and provided an excellent device for the calculation of parameter values within realistic degree of accuracy. The results proved to be easiest, useful, and rapid means for monitoring of water quality with the help of systematic calculations of correlation coefficient. It is recommended to treat groundwater prior to domestic use.</p> J. E. Agori, H. U. Nwoke, B. C. Okoro, B. U. Dike Copyright (c) 2021 J. E. Agori, H. U. Nwoke, B. C. Okoro, B. U. Dike Fri, 17 Sep 2021 07:02:23 -0400 A Review of Multi-Channel Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks <p>Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are witnessing a&nbsp;momentum spread especially with the growth of the Internet&nbsp;of Things (IoT) paradigm. Indeed, WSNs are considered as&nbsp;the main enabling infrastructure for IoT networks. Nowadays,&nbsp;the emerging WSNs applications require not only long network&nbsp;lifespan but also considerably high data rate. Consequently,&nbsp;conceiving Multichannel MAC protocols that save the scarce<br>energy budget of sensor nodes while providing high network&nbsp;throughput is crucial for the emerging WSNs applications. In this&nbsp;paper, a thorough review of recent multichannel MAC protocols&nbsp;is provided along with a classification framework to deeply&nbsp;understand the design aspects for each protocol.</p> Hanan Alahmadi, Fatma Boabdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Hanan Alahmadi, Fatma Boabdullah Sat, 18 Sep 2021 06:40:23 -0400 IoT based Controlling of Power Grid <p class="Abstract">An electric network, electric grid, or electricity network is an integrated electricity supply network for producers to consumers. It consists of electricity producing stations. The main objective of this study is to monitor the electricity grid system process, disclose this system at a dangerous level, monitor the current line, and reduce conventional systems expenses. From anywhere on the Internet, we can monitor. We can do it also if a system is enabled or disabled. It uses an electrical microcontroller to monitor a single-phase electrical device using Arduino to read sensor voltage and current and then communicate measured data via a new Android application for wireless monitoring. It enables the monitoring of several basic power quality parameters of basic voltage. The technology also determines the line frequency and power factor.</p> Md Abdullah Al Rakib, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Ashiqur Rahman, Shantanu Chakraborty, M. M. Abu Shahria Shawon, Fysol Ibna Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Md Abdullah Al Rakib, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Ashiqur Rahman, Shantanu Chakraborty, M. M. Abu Shahria Shawon, Fysol Ibna Abbas Mon, 20 Sep 2021 12:50:08 -0400 Performance of Enhanced Steel Beam-Column Welded Connections for Seismic Resistance <p>This paper presents and discusses the development of a numerical model which investigates the enhancement of overall stiffness and stress distribution in welded connections under cyclic loading. The structure under investigation, described in four fully welded T-joint (BCC5) specimens. The four specimens were modeled under different displacement loading using a finite element analysis program Solidworks and Ansys software in conjunction with test data obtained from the University of Lisbon, which was validated with the test results by matching the hysteresis loops, maximum high strain, and maximum stress at the crack location steel joint specimens. The comparison between the analysis and test results showed good agreement and also showed that the maximum strain in the enhanced model is less than the maximum strain on the base model, and the location of maximum strain is moved to the gusset plate rather than the weld zone, therefore the gusset plate makes the joint in the enhanced model more ductile than the joint in the base model. Life cycles to failure for the enhanced model are more than life cycles to failure in the base model. It is therefore found that this has useful applications in the steel construction industry.</p> W. Aboalriha Copyright (c) 2021 W. Aboalriha Wed, 22 Sep 2021 14:36:03 -0400 Comparison of the Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of Pretreated Kenaf–Polyester Composites <p>Conductivity of a material is an important physical property that determines its suitability or otherwise in all engineering designs and construction. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of two pretreatment methods viz acetylation and permanganate on the thermal and electrical conductivities of pretreated kenaf bast fibres applied in polyester resin. Fully grown kenaf (<em>hibiscus cannabalis</em>) were manually retted from the stalk, washed, and cut into short fibre lengths of about 10 cm. One portion of the fibres was pretreated with 5%pbw NaOH solution before immersing it in glacial acetic acid and then in acetic anhydride. The second was also pretreated with5%pbw of NaOH before being pretreated with 0.125%of KMnO<sub>4</sub>. The third portion of fibres was untreated to serve as control. The ground fibre was incorporated into ortho unsaturated polyester rand cast with moulds of dumb-belland square shapes. The electrical conductivity of the composites was deduced by measuring the resistance of the composites using the high voltage insulation tester model 3122 and calculating from equations. The thermal conductivities were determined by analytical method. The results show that chemical pretreatments of fibres by acetylation and permanganate methods have no appreciable effect on the thermal conductivities of composites. Further findings show that the acetylated fibre composites have no effect on the electrical conductivities of the composites. The permanganate pretreated fibre composites however increased the electrical conductivities of the composites significantly.</p> P. U. N. Obianuko, J. C. Obianuko, T. U. Onuegbu Copyright (c) 2021 P. U. N. Obianuko, J. C. Obianuko, T. U. Onuegbu Tue, 28 Sep 2021 05:40:03 -0400 GSM Based Home Safety and Security System <p class="Abstract">In this paper, we worked on how to control home apparatuses, safety, and security systems utilizing GSM innovation by utilizing a cell phone. We will likewise show that we can control the apparatuses even without a phone by sending an ordinary call. The favorable position of utilizing GSM innovation is that we can handle home appliances from any place in the world. This system permits the proprietor to control the appliances and to get a feedback status of the home apparatuses by sending calls just as through a portable application. For the home security system, we are utilizing an antitheft announcing system that will report the proprietor by sending a message and ringing a call. Likewise, for the security system, when fire or gas spillage is expected to occur, it will also report the proprietor by sending a call. Subsequently, by utilizing GSM innovation, it gives remote access to the gadgets to be controlled.</p> Md. Abdullah Al Rakib, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Sohel Rana, Md. Sanjib Islam, Fysol Ibna Abbas Copyright (c) 2021 Md. Abdullah Al Rakib, Md. Moklesur Rahman, Md. Sohel Rana, Md. Sanjib Islam, Fysol Ibna Abbas Tue, 28 Sep 2021 06:14:42 -0400 Comparative Analysis of Off-grid Small Hydro-Solar PV-Diesel Hybrid System in South-west, Nigeria <p>Reliable, efficient, and affordable power supply system is a necessary tool for rapid socio-economic development of any country. Power supply in Nigeria is grossly inadequate and inefficient. This work presented a comparison analysis of Off-Grid Small hydro-Solar Photovoltaic-Diesel Generator hybrid system in three selected locations in South-west, Nigeria. The selected locations are Molete (Oyo state), Abeokuta (Ogun state) and Ede (Osun state). The hydro data for the three locations were collected from their respective River Basin Development Authorities, while the solar data were obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s global satellite database. The hybrid components consisting of Small hydropower (SHP), Solar Photovoltaic (PV), Battery (BB) and Diesel Generator (DG) were modelled and run using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable software with the stream flow, the solar radiation, load and the system components costs as inputs. The work also carried out a comparative analysis based on economic parameters-return on investment and simple payback period different from the conventional use of net present cost, cost of energy(COE) and operating cost. The optimal hybrid combinations for these areas were compared with the usage of autonomous DG. The most optimal hybrid combination for Molete and Ede is PV-BB-SHP System with COEs of $0.347/kWh and $0.161/kWh respectively. The most optimal configuration for Abeokuta is PV-DG-BB-SHP with COE of $0.290/kWh. The results obtained (based on economic and technical considerations) showed that the hybrid system is viable for these areas. The outcome of the research will serve as guide for the government and prospective investors in formulating effective policies towards rapid development of renewable energy technologies in these areas.</p> W. Ajeba, B. Adebanji, T. Fasina Copyright (c) 2021 W. Ajeba, B. Adebanji, T. Fasina Fri, 08 Oct 2021 08:10:09 -0400 Study of Classification of Human Emotion Features from EEG Signals at Minimum Free Energy Operated Effortlessly <p>With the rapid development of various EEG-based features, PC machine robots can apply their fast massive parallel electronic computing AI capability to BCI systems. However, the machines do not have the human-equivalent chemical macromolecular hormone signals to understand human emotions. Machines cannot test people who are home alone with their loneliness, depression, drowsiness, happiness or remark the real hints through human being communication. But a minimum free energy of EEG discrete wavelet transform can indicate human emotion features and human being trend action. In this paper, we focus on EEG discrete wavelet transform at minimum free energy compared to operating effortlessly in visualization algorithm. In addition, we discuss EEG-based brain activities with the discrete wavelet energy spectrum for clinic treatment.</p> Hong Yu, Sean-Paul Tomer, Marcus Perla, Yvett Yu Copyright (c) 2021 Hong Yu, Sean-Paul Tomer, Marcus Perla, Yvett Yu Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Classification of Ultra-high Performance Concrete (UHPC) <p>Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) been an advanced concrete introduced as reactive powder concrete (RPC) over twenty years ago, is now being employed for use in the construction industry of some developed countries like China, Germany and United States of America. Its excellent properties in structural performance and durability make it the civil engineering material that will reshape the future of the construction industry in terms of structural performance; and this paper aims at helping construction experts and developing countries to understand and accept UHPC for use in everyday construction works. The paper gives an in-depth review on the classification of UHPCs based on mix proportion and mechanical properties. Firstly, the mixture design and the mechanical properties of UHPC were discussed. Then UHPC was classified into different types based on mechanical properties and the manufacturer’s modification of the ingredients used for reactive powder concrete or multi-scale cement composite production. This review shows that Funk and Dinger model (also known as Modified Andreasen and Andersen model (MAA)) is the most accepted and widely used mix design method for UHPC. It also revealed that UHPC’s compressive strength, tensile strength and flexural strength are in excess of 150, 7 and 40 MPa respectively. It further classified UHPC into BCV®, BSI®, Cemtec®, Ceracem, Ductal, DURA and UHPC with coarse aggregate; and this classification (especially UHPC with coarse aggregate) is a good sign that local materials can be incorporated into UHPC by developing countries for cost minimisation.</p> A. S. J. Smith, G. Xu Copyright (c) 2021 A. S. J. Smith, G. Xu Sat, 16 Oct 2021 14:53:25 -0400 Development of an STM32 Microprocessor System for Automatic Continuous Remote Temperature Control in an Intensive Flow of People <p class="Abstract">This article discusses the fundamental principles of non-contact temperature measurement, technical solutions that translate them into practice in order to automate temperature control and improve the current epidemiological situation in the world in connection with coronavirus infection, as well as a proposal for a new technical solution that is more affordable, which will increase coverage of the use of automatic systems for monitoring the body temperature of people in public places, and a description of the following steps for its implementation.</p> Ilgiz Bakiev Copyright (c) 2021 Ilgiz Bakiev Mon, 18 Oct 2021 15:06:38 -0400 Application of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Correlating Density and Fire Properties of Some Selected Woods in South-East Nigeria <p>Data sourced from literature for wood density (WD)&nbsp;and fire properties for fifteen Nigerian woods were analysed.&nbsp;The fire properties are ignition time (IT), flame propagation&nbsp;rate (FPR), flame duration (FD), afterglow time (AGT), ash&nbsp;formation (AF) and limiting oxygen index (LOI). The aim was to&nbsp;correlate density and fire properties of wood using eigenvalues&nbsp;and eigenvectors. The analysis tool adopted was the statistical<br>analysis system (SAS) where principal component and regression&nbsp;analyses were performed. Based on the presented data and&nbsp;analyses, WD was found to relate well with FPR, AGT and&nbsp;LOI with an adjusted R-Square = 83% while the other three&nbsp;parameters: IT, FD and AF constitute random noise.</p> <div id="sconnect-is-installed" style="display: none;"></div> <div id="sconnect-is-installed" style="display: none;"></div> Vincent Nwalieji Okafor, Igwebuike Enweonye, Patrick Ugochukwu Umennadi Copyright (c) 2021 Vincent Nwalieji Okafor, Igwebuike Enweonye, Lilian Ebele Aniemena Tue, 19 Oct 2021 00:00:00 -0400 Evaluation of Qualitative Accelerated Tests Practices in Product Development Process: A Computer Simulation <p class="Abstract"><a name="_Hlk63952304"></a>— Reliability is an essential item for the product development phase, as it is from estimated values are obtained about how the product will behave and, consequently, about modes of design flaws and weaknesses. In short, these responses are important to offer to the market high quality products, in addition to providing safety to the customer. In this work, a product was proposed where its design was based on research on how its shape should be and three different raw materials were chosen to be applied to the product and, with the simulation, it was possible to discover the weaknesses and points of improvement and which material best suited the proposed product.</p> Laura Lima da Rocha, Marcelo Albuquerque de Oliveira, Gabriela de Mattos Veroneze Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Lima da Rocha, Marcelo Albuquerque de Oliveira, Gabriela de Mattos Veroneze Fri, 22 Oct 2021 08:25:22 -0400 Pore Structure as a Determinant of Flexibility in Sustainable Lime-Cement Mortar Composites <p>Flexibility of Lime Mortar resulting from its good permeability feature through its relatively large interconnected pore structure makes it popular as an old sustainable building material. This characteristic feature enhances its capability to suppress masonry deformation. However, its mechanical strength is weak. To address this shortcoming, cement is added to form a stronger composite. This study, therefore, evaluates the pore structure of the resulting lime-cement composite, with a view to assessing impact and sustainability of the lime’s flexibility in the overall performance of the composite. Adopting equal mix ratio (1:3) of Binder/Aggregate (B/A), mortars were prepared using lime as a lone binder, as well as other five different compositions in the ascending and descending order of lime and cement binders (i.e., 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1). Each composition was assessed in fresh state using Water/Binder ratio, Air Content and Bulk Density. For the hardened state assessments, mechanical characteristics and microstructural features evaluated through six (6) and twelve (12) month curing periods respectively, were considered. Results of the investigation reveal that low cumulative porosity (i.e., summation of the porosities) across the three pore regions of Inter-Nano pores (1 – 10 nm), Super-Nano pores (10 – 100 nm) and Sub-Micro pores (0.1 – 1 µm), for each of the mortars, is observed to be synonymous with low cement content, low Modulus of Elasticity, low (<em>f<sub>c</sub>/f<sub>f</sub></em>), and thus, high flexibility. This observation is supported by high linear coefficient of correlation (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.89) for the equation describing both ‘cumulative porosity’ (within the referenced three pore ranges) and cement content. Thus, it could be inferred that despite cement addition with resulting alteration in the pore structure of the composite, presence of lime would retain flexibility property of the composites, with more flexibility in the descending order of cement contents. Considering the impacts of pandemic climate change, growing energy costs and human activities on the environment, this study therefore attempts to promote revival of an old but partially abandoned sustainable lime based mortars, with a view to facilitating improved lime mortar performances, conservation of energy resources and overall protection of the environment.</p> Sule Adeniyi Olaniyan Copyright (c) 2021 Sule Adeniyi Olaniyan Fri, 22 Oct 2021 08:35:44 -0400 Stability of Underground Coal Mine Roadway Excavated in Soft Rock Mass <p>This paper studies the stability and ground behavior of the main roadway excavated in a soft rock mass at PT Gerbang Daya Mandiri (GDM) underground coal mine in Indonesia. The stability and ground behavior of the main roadway under various geological and excavation conditions was analyzed and discussed through numerical simulations and field measurement data. Based on the results, it is found that the mechanical conditions of claystone and the geological conditions of the roof have an obvious impact on the stability of the main roadway. The large roof displacement of the roadway occurs when the roadway is excavated in the deteriorated claystone, whereas the small roof displacement occurs when the roadway excavation is made in the undeteriorated claystone and when the coal layer is present in the roof. Under undeteriorated conditions of claystone, the small failure zone and displacement of the roadway occur. The current support system using the steel arch SS400 is effective to control the roadway stability. As the claystone has deteriorated due to groundwater, the failure zone and displacement expand considerably, and the roadway stability decreases significantly. The use of the current support system (steel arch SS400) is difficult to control the stability of the main roadway. Under this situation, a stronger steel arch SS540 is recommended to apply.&nbsp; Furthermore, the presence of a coal layer during the excavation considerably improves the stability of the main roadway. Compared with the roadway excavated in claystone only, the displacement decreases significantly. In addition, by leaving a thicker coal layer in the roof, a better stability condition of the roadway can be achieved.</p> Phanthoudeth Pongpanya, Vongsavanh Soysouvanh, Takashi Sasaoka, Hideki Shimada Copyright (c) 2021 Phanthoudeth Pongpanya, Vongsavanh Soysouvanh, Takashi Sasaoka, Hideki Shimada Sun, 24 Oct 2021 10:28:18 -0400